ClinNeuro- Cranial Neuropathy

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  1. What differs about anatomy of the Optic nerve compared to other cranial nerves? (3)
    the optic nerve is a direct extension of the brain and has a lot of similarities to axons that are within the CNS; it is myelinated by oligodendrocytes (most peripheral nerves are myelinated by Schwann cells); it is surrounded by CSF
  2. Optic neuritis is a form of __________, which is a(n) __________ condition of the CNS.
    GME; immune-mediated inflammatory
  3. How do you diagnose optic neuritis? (4)
    fundic exam (domed optic vessels), MRI, abnormal PLR (if blindness), spinal tap (meninges and CSF surround optic nerve!- unique CN)
  4. What are some infectious causes of optic neuritis in dogs? (3)
    CDV, Ehrlichia, Crytococcus neoformans
  5. What are some infectious causes of optic neuritis in cats? (3)
    FIP, Ehrlichia, Crypyococcus neoformans
  6. How do you treat optic neuritis?
    [if rule out infectious causes] immunosuppressive therapy
  7. What is the prognosis for return of vision with optic neuritis?
    guarded for vision, but prognosis for quality of life is very good!
  8. Trigeminal neuritis is a(n) _________ condition that usually presents as...
    idiopathic; acute onset of inability to close the jaw.
  9. With trigeminal neuritis, facial sensation is _________.
    normal (only affects motor branch, mandibular, of trigeminal...maxillary and ophthalmic branches are normal)
  10. The primary pathology associated with trigeminal neuritis is __________.
    demyelination (therefore, fast recovery because no damage to axons)
  11. How do you diagnose trigeminal neuritis?
    inability to close jaw--> presumptive diagnosis
  12. How do you treat trigeminal neuritis?
    supportive care (nutritional support)--> spontaneously resolves in 2-3 weeks
  13. What is the prognosis for trigeminal neuritis?
    good to excellent
  14. Why is CSF usually normal with trigeminal neuritis?
    it only affects the peripheral nerve, which is not surrounded by CSF
  15. A dog comes in with an extended history of asymmetrical atrophy of the muscles of differential?
    trigeminal nerve sheath tumor
  16. How do you differentiate b/w trigeminal neuritis and trigeminal nerve sheath tumor? (3)
    neuritis is acute- TNST is chronic, neuritis is bilateral- TNST is unilateral, neuritis has intact facial sensation- TNST has decreased facial sensation
  17. What is almost pathognomonic for masticatory myositis?
    cannot open the mouth
  18. How do you treat trigeminal nerve sheath tumors? (2)
    radiation therapy, palliative
  19. What breed is predisposed to idiopathic facial nerve paralysis?
    Cocker Spaniels
  20. What is the prognosis for return of function with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis?
    guarded- may need artificial tears b/c can't blink
  21. How do you diagnose idiopathic facial nerve paralysis?
    rule out other causes
  22. What are some differentials for dysfunction of CN VII? (4)
    otitis media/interna with Horner's, idiopathic facial nerve paralysis, hypothyroidism, neoplasia [rare]
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ClinNeuro- Cranial Neuropathy
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