Motivation and Emotion

  1. the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors
  2. a behavior that is not a result of learning and can be found across members of a species
  3. when a physiological  need occurs and creates a state of tension which in turn motivates you to reduce the tension or satisfy the need
    drive reduction theory of motivation
  4. the physiological aim of drive reduction
  5. refers to the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state that is optimal for functioning
  6. When you are thirsty you are motivated to drink water to reduce the thirst. What is this an example of?
    drive reduction theory of motivation
  7. If you are offered money to perform a certain task or behavior and the money is the reason why you perform that task or behavior, what is this an example of?
    incentives theory
  8. suggest that people are driven to perform actions in order to maintain an optimum level of physiological arousal
    optimal arousal theory of motivation
  9. Your levels drop too low, so you seek stimulation by going out to a nightclub with friends. These levels become too elevated and you become overstimulated, thus you are then motivated to select a relaxing activity such as going for a walk or taking a nap. What is this an example of?
    optimal arousal theory of motivation
  10. Starting from the bottom of the Maslow's pyramid, what is the order in which needs must be fulfilled?
    • physiological needs
    • safety needs
    • social needs
    • self-esteem
    • self-actualization
  11. According to Maslow, what is the our maximum potential referred to as?
  12. Who first established the drive reduction theory?
    Clark Hull
  13. What is the evolutionary approach to motivation?
    instinct theory
  14. Most of the biological feeling of hunger comes from which part of your brain?
  15. If stimulated, the _____ hypothalamus causes you to feel hunger.
  16. If stimulated, the _____ hypothalamus causes you to feel full.
  17. the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest
    basal metabolic rate
  18. name the six appetite hormones
    • insulin
    • leptin
    • orexin
    • ghrelin
    • obestatin 
    • pyy
  19. This is a digestive tract hormone that sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain
  20. This is secreted by the stomach and sends "I'm full" signals to the brain
  21. This is secreted by an empty stomach and sends "I'm hungry" signals to the brain
  22. This is a hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus
  23. This is secreted by fat cells and when abundant, it causes the brain to increase the metabolism and decrease hunger.
  24. This is secreted by the pancreas and controls blood glucose.
  25. Levels of hunger are increased by low levels of ______.
  26. an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
    anorexia nervosa
  27. how quickly our body uses energy
    metabolic rate
  28. Why do stressed people tend to crave carbohydrates?
    because carbs help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calming effects
  29. What is the relationship between carbohydrates and serotonin?
    Carbs help boost serotonin
  30. theory that states everyone's body has a genetically determined range of weight and temperature that their body will try to maintain to stay at optimal health
    set point theory
  31. an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
    bulimia nervosa
  32. the desire to do things well and overcome obstacles
    achievement motivation
  33. Who pioneered the study of achievement motivation?
    Atkinson and McClelland
  34. when you take some action for the sake of enjoyment or the satisfaction you receive it is called _____ motivation.
  35. A student goes to school everyday and is always on time because he enjoys learning. What is this an example of?
    intrinsic motivation
  36. when you take some action in order to obtain a reward or outcome it is called _____ motivation.
  37. a projective measure intended to evaluate a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials
    Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  38. People that are motivated intrinsically are usually also ____ ____.
    high achievers.
  39. According to this law, performance suffers when arousal is either too high or too low. Instead, there's an optimal level of arousal which will produce optimal performance.
    Yerkes-Dodson Law/ Arousal theory
  40. This type of leader is simply focused on getting the work done.
    task leader
  41. This type of leader is focused on getting the work done while pleasing their employees
    Social leader
  42. An employer is assigned a project. He immediately begins listing out all of the responsibilities, determining deadlines, and assigning work. What kind of leader is he?
    task leader
  43. According to McGregor, managers that have a more negative view on their employees can be also known as ____ __.
    Theory X
  44. According to McGregor, managers that have a more positive view on their employees can be also known as ____ __.
    Theory Y
  45. A Theory __ manager believes that it is her goal to help develop potential so that employees can work towards a common organizational goal.
  46. What part of your nervous system is responsible for fight or flight?
    sympathetic nervous system
  47. the portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary processes
    autonomic nervous system
  48. a machine that measures human responses to questions, more commonly known as a lie detector
  49. What does a polygraph measure?
    • patterns of bodily arousal
    • heart rate
    • perspiration
    • nervous system arousal
    • respiration
    • electrical reactivity of the skin
  50. initial research indicates that emotional intelligence can predicate what things?
    • higher gpa in college
    • greater life satisfaction
    • marital success 
    • emotional well-being
  51. Vonda is exceptionally skilled at perceiving emotions in others. Vonda has a high level of ______.
  52. occurs when an individual perceives stimuli that causes physiological arousal and the skin is able to conduct electricity more than when not aroused
    galvanic skin response
  53. What are two other names for the galvanic skin response?
    • Skin conductance response 
    • electrodermal response
  54. positive emotion are mainly processed where?
    left hemisphere
  55. negative emotions are mainly processed where?
    right hemisphere
  56. the theory that our experience of emotion is awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
    James-Lange Theory
  57. "I feel sad because I am crying" is a statement that would most like be made by...?
    William James
  58. the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
    Cannon-Bard Theory
  59. the theory to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
    Schachter's  Theory/ Two-Factor Theory
  60. Motives address the fundamental question of the ________ of behavior.
  61. Which two theorists supported instinct theory?
    Freud and James
  62. a state of deprivation or deficiency
  63. A state of bodily tension that arises from an unmet need
  64. In drive theory, biological drives are also known as...?
    primary drives
  65. internal states that prompt inquisitive and exploratory behavior.
    stimulus motives
  66. "I feel so excited. It's probably fright due to the sudden appearance of the deer." This statement is best associated with which theory?
    Schachter's Two Factor Theory
  67. In the dual-pathway model of fear, the "high road" leads to the ________.
  68. In the dual-pathway model of fear, the "low road" leads to the ________.
  69. In the dual-pathway model of fear, where is stimulus information first processed?
  70. Who formulated the dual-pathway model of fear?
  71. the process of venting aggression as a way to release or get rid of emotion
  72. this theory states that expressing or getting out one's aggression and anger should reduce the feeling of aggression
    catharsis theory
  73. the sense that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
    relative deprivation
  74. our tendency to form judgment relative to a neural level defined by our prior experience
    adaptation-level phenomenon
Card Set
Motivation and Emotion
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