1) what happens when a nerve signal reaches the end of an axon?
2) a ____synaptic neuron sends the neurotransmitter and a ___synaptic neuron receives it.
3) Name of the gap between neurons.
1) It can only go further by triggering the release of a neurotransmitter.
2) presynaptic, postsynaptic
3) The synaptic cleft
1) What happens after a nerve signal reaches a presynaptic nerve?
2) How do neurotransmitters get to the postsynaptic cleft?
1) voltage gated channels open & release Ca.
2) Ca triggers the exocytosis of neurotransmitter through vesicles, which return to refill ACH. ACTH binds to ligand-gated chanels on postsynaptic neuron.
3) What happens after ACH binds to ligand-gated channels
4) what does it take to make the postsynaptic neuron to fire?
3) channels open allowing Na in and K to leave. Na depolarizes the cell producing a local voltage shift called postsynaptic potential
4) A local potential that is strong enough will open voltage-gated ion channels in the trigger zone, which will cause the neuron to fire.
How are the effects of neurotransmitters terminated?
1) Enzymes degrade
2) reuptake into the presynaptic membrane
3) diffusion of neurotransmitter away from synapse
Name 3 synaptic messingers
Acetylcholine, amino acids, monoamines
name 4 neuropeptides
- 1) substance P
- 2) Enkephalins
- 3) Beta-endorphin
- 4) cholecystekinin (CCK)
1-3 decrease pain, CCK suppresses appetite
_____ is any voltage change in the direction of the threashold that makes a neuron more likely to fire.
-usually results from Na flowing into the cell canceling some of the negative change on the side of the membrane
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
___ is any voltage change away from the threashold that makes a neuron less likely to fire.
-neurotransmitter hyoerpolarizes the postsynaptic cell and makes it more negative than the Resting Membrane Potential.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
1) list 2 messengers or neurotransmitters that inhibit postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
2) List one neurotransmitter than is excitory
3) what happens when a synapse is excessively stimulated
1) Glycine and Gaba
2) Acetylcholine (ACH).
3) uses up neurotransmitter, so ends transmission
List 3 effects drugs may have on a synapse
- 1) enhance release of neurotransmitter (amphetamines)
- 2) block receptors for neurotransmitter (valume, xanas)
- 3) block release of neurotransmitter (morphine, opium)
What is the cause, symptoms, and treatment of parkinsons
- cause: degredation of dopamine releasing neurons
- symptoms: involuntary muscle contractions
- Treatment: l-dopa
name 2 functions of CSF
boyence and protection
List ventricle areas top to bottom
2 lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aquaduct, 4th ventricle
___ is a type of neuroglia that lines the ventricles and covers choroid plexus.
1) ____ is the diagnoses of excess CSF accumulating in the brian
2) ___ is inflammation of meninges
3) smallest bone in the body
- 1) hydrocephalus
- 2) meningitis (bacterial/viral)
- 3) stapes
1) 3 basic regions of cerebral hemispheres
2) 3 places cerebral gray matter is found
1) cortex of gray matter, inner white matter, basal nuclei deep within white matter
2) cortex, basal nuclei, limbic system
1) Cortex 3 functional areas:
2) Left and Right side of the brain's specialty
3) frontal lobe's specialty:
1) sensory, motor, and association (consciousness)
2) L: logic, R: emotion
3) motivation, foresight, judgment, and aggression
1) Parietal lobe's specialty:
2) occipital lobe's specialty:
3) Temporal lobe's specialty
4) Insula's specialty
1) receive and integrate sensory info.
2) Visual center
4) understanding languge,taste,