Medieval History Final

  1. Reconquista
    • 718-1492
    • Christians fought for control of the muslim moor Iberian peninsula
    • caliphate in al-Andalus began to come apart in 1002, which Christians began to take advantage of.  
    • Christian King Alfonso captured Toledo in 1085
    • Innocent III launched formal crusade
    • Treaty of Granada - Moors surrender the city
    • King Ferdinand and Isabella
  2. Anselm of Canterbury
    • 1033-1109
    • master of monastic edu (Benedictine monk)
    • founded St. Victor's in Paris
    • theology - 
    • reconciled reason and faith.
    • believed in reason to understand 
    • faith seeking understanding
  3. Abelard
    • 1079-1142
    • Wrote Sic et Nom - played devil's advocate. 2 opposing points of view, using reason to discern.
    • logic goes before faith
    • doubt = necessary
    • his books were later condemned 
    • "I must understand in order to believe"
  4. Hildegard von Bingen
    • 1098-1179
    • stretched the limits of orthodox boundaries
    • possible to have direct contact w/ god without priest
    • received visions from God as a child, later wrote about them and wrote music
    • founded and led a monastery near Bingen (unusual for woman at the time)
  5. Magna Carta
    • 1215 
    • signed by king john
    • forced upon him by rebelling nobles after a series of defeats while fighting french
    • john constantly raising taxes
    • step toward representative gov
    • everyone entitled to justice
    • king limited by tradition and customs

    • it promised protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment,
    • access to swift justice,
    • and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown

    Edward I, reissued the charter in 1297, this time confirming it as part of England's statute law.
  6. Fourth Lateran Council
    • Called by Innocent III in 1216
    • helped decodify church reform
    • formally established 7 sacred sacraments
    • formalized transubstantiation 
    • decreed there would be no more new monastic orders
    • also condemned some heresies - kind of beginning of inquisition
  7. Assize of Clarendon
    • 1166
    • initiated by Henry II of Eng
    • attempt to improve how criminal law was handled
    • established grand jury
    • guilt/innocence determined by an ordeal

    • was an extreme effort to control rampant lawlessness
    • effect: encouraging false accusations
    • amended by the Assize of Northampton
  8. Gregory VII
    • Pope 1020-1085
    • reformed celebicy for clergy
    • attacked practice of simoning
    • Investiture controversy: conflict w/ HRE Henry IV
    • Papal vs. imperial authority
    • excomunity Henry in 1076, forced to rewelcome him
    • formalized pope's ability to dispose of emperors
  9. 1st crucade
    • called by Urban II in 1095
    • mainly composed of Fr knights who captured Antioch
    • Jerusalem captured next year (1099)
    • most successful crusade
    • established a # of crusading states in the east, complex relationship w/ byzantines
    • result of overall crucade mvmt - byz empire in disaster, muslims +pwr in Mid east, +pwr popes
  10. Decretum of Gratian
    • written c. 1140
    • compiled by Italian Benedictine monk Gratian
    • new ecclesiastical law code
    • channeled all authority to papacy, pope = supreme judge +legislative
    • became standard text for cannon law
    • influenced by aristotle
    • book of qs/problems and solutions that church men may face
  11. Innocent III
    • pope from 1198-1216
    • papacy reached high pt w/ him, internat'l prestige
    • called for 4th crusade
    • called 4th lateran council to establish sacraments and decodify church reform
    • reorg papal judicial sys
    • played fr interdict (all relg services in country reduced) to get Philip to back out of annulment
  12. Babylonian Captivity
    • 1309-1377
    • Papacy moved to Avignon, dominated by Fr
    • move initiated by Clemont VI (who stacked fr cardinals)
    • Gregory XI moved back to Romeschisim w/ 2-3 dif popes
    • result: church lost popularity, expensive
    • devel of revenue "enhancing" methods
  13. Council of Constance
    • 1414-1418
    • ended schism
    • reform
    • deal w/ spread of heresy
    • all 3 popes disposed, new pope Martin V elected
    • pope must call council every 10yrs
  14. Cathedral Schools
    • schools founded by bishops to edu some of parish clergy
    • root = monastic schools,
    • overtook monastic schools 
    • later evolved into the university 
    • developed reputation for certain subjects, theology, sci
    • scholasticus (master) moved around to teach
    • beginning of scholastic theology
  15. Scholastic method
    • method of learning
    • taught by academics of universities/cathedrals in med era
    • attempted to reconcile classical philosophies w/ christian theology
    • emphasized argument/dialectic reasoning to get to conclusion 
    • conceptual analysis, drawing of conclusions
  16. Summa theologiae
    • unfinished work of Thomas Aquinus
    • hw was going to prove every tenant of chatholic using only logic
    • stopped writing it in 1272 after receiving a vision
    • one of the most important theological texts of the time
    • influence by Aristotelian thought
    • reconciled reason and faith
  17. The hundred years' war
    • lasted 1337-1453
    • b/w eng and fr
    • technically series of wars w/ treaties in-between
    • strained relations ever since norman conquest
    • war started when Edward III had claim to fr throne
    • Fr won war

    • effects:
    • -made direct nat'l taxation common feature of both kingdoms
    • -strengthen position of kings, +importance of foot soldiers, end of mounted knights as key
    • -changes in how future countries would fight/pay for wars
    • eng used longbows
    • war +widespread
  18. Cult of the saints
    • intercessory work of saints
    • prominence of mary
    • devotion to relics
  19. Mendicant Orders
    • rejection of need for seclusion from the world
    • -idea of apostolic poverty, begged for food

    most popular were franciscans (b. 1209 francis of assisi) and dominicans (1216 Dominic de Guzman)
  20. Francis of Assisi
    • 1181-1226
    • founder franciscan order
    • got permission to found order from Innocent III in 1201
    • -mendicant orders - poverty, itinerant preaching/manual labor
    • disapproved of papacy wealth
  21. Agincourt
    • battle in 100yrs war 1415
    • engl defeated fr. last maj eng victory before Henry V died
    • Joan of arc then began to help fr
  22. Mysiticism
    • High middle ages
    • popular piety among laypeople
    • medieval catholic theology
    • Hildegard von Bingen
    • evidenced by flourishing of monastic orders
    • idea of vision/union w/ divine
  23. William of Occam
    • 1288-1348
    • charged w/ heresy in 1324 by Avignon court
    • claimed pope too much involved in politics
    • pope not enough of a spiritual mentor
    • criticized babylonian captivity
    • he wrote treatises on logic
    • English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian

    founder of a form of nominalism—the school of thought that denies that universal concepts such as “father” have any reality apart from the individual things signified by the universal or general term.

    The medieval rule of economy, that “plurality should not be assumed w/o necessity,” = “Ockham’s razor”; the principle was used by Ockham to eliminate many entities that had been devised, especially by the scholastic philosophers, to explain reality.
  24. The Plague
    • Bubonic plague, highly contagious by air or flea/rat bite
    • Pneumonic Plague
    • Septicaemic plague
    • came from boat native to Asia
    • trade routs, massive demographic consequences 

    • 1st maj outbreak - 1357-1351 (killed 25-50% ppl in euro (25mil ppl total))
    • jews blamed, burned

    • 1361- manorialsim falling apart, +wages, noble classes +survival, w/in noble class women +likely to survive
    • took toll on agriculture (animals)
    • women +independent 
    • papacy in decline
    • trade declined
    • lands went out of cultivation
    • peasants +able to bargen for better terms

    • after plague:
    • govs +pwr
    • standards of living +
    • +taxes
    • +nat'lism
    • edu in vernacular lang
    • decreased cost of food
Card Set
Medieval History Final
Mid-late Medieval Europe