behavioral sciences

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  1. extirpation/ablation
    removing the parts of the brain to study and observe its behavior
  2. functionalism
    how mental processes help one to adapt to an environment
  3. function of sensory neurons
    transmit sense info from spinal cord to brain
  4. function of motor neurons
    transmit motor info from brain & spinal cord to muscles and glands
  5. afferent vs efferent
    • A-is a vessel that brings things toward a central area
    • E-is a vessel that brings things away from the central area
  6. functions of inter neurons
    numerous neurons in brain and spinal cord linked to reflex behavior
  7. reflex arcs aka
    neural circuits
  8. piloerection
    involuntary erection of hairs triggered  by fear, cold, shock, etc
  9. phrenology
    size of the brain measured pysch traits
  10. Franz Gall theory of neuropsychology
    • believed behavior, intelligence, and personality are based on the anatomy of the brain
    • the brain expanded if the trait was well developed
  11. Pierre Flourens theory of neuropsychology
    assumed that the brain had specific parts for specific functions (extirpation)
  12. William James theory of neuropsychology
    • thought it was important to study how the mind adapts to the environment
    • functionalism
  13. John Dewey theory of neuropsychology
    • wanted to focus on an organism as a whole
    • functionalism
  14. Paul Broca theory of neuropsychology
    • examined behavioral defects of those with brain damage
    • ex: brain lesions = functional impairment
  15. broca area function
    part of the brain that helps to speak
  16. Hermann von Helmholtz theory of neuropsychology
    first to measure the speed of a nerve impulse (reaction time)
  17. Charles Sherrington theory of neuropsychology
    • inferred the existence of synapses
    • believed they were electrical
  18. CNS is composed of
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  19. PNS is composed of
    • nerve tissue
    • fibers outside of the brain and spinal cord (12 cranial 31 spinal nerves)
  20. somatic NS consists of
    • sensory and motor neurons
    • **transmits info through afferent sensory fibers**
  21. autonomic NS function
    manages involuntary muscles associated w/ internal organs and glands
  22. Autonomic NS two branches and their functions
    • sympathetic-activation by stress (fight or flight)
    • parasympathetic-conserve energy associated w/resting and sleeping rates
    • **antagonistic**
  23. 3 layers of meninges (outer to inner)
    • dura mater
    • arachonoid mater
    • pia mater
  24. function of meninges
    protect the brain, keep it anchored, and resorb cerebral fluid
  25. cerebral fluid function
    • solution in which the brain and spinal cord rest
    • (internal cavities of the brain produce it)
  26. 3 major divisions of the brain
    • forebrain
    • midbrain
    • hindbrain
  27. 5 principle structures of the forebrain
    • cerebral cortex
    • basal ganglia
    • limbic system
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  28. principle structure of the midbrain
    inferior and superior colliculi
  29. 3 principle structures of the hindbrain
    • cerebellum
    • medulla oblongata
    • reticular formation
  30. function of cerebral cortex
    complex perception, cogn, and behavioral processes
  31. function of the basal ganglia
  32. function of limbic system
    interconnected structures looping around the central portion of the brain associated with memory and emotion
  33. function of the thalamus
    sensory relay station for incoming sensory info. It sorts and transmits them to areas of the cerebral cortex
  34. function of the hypothalamus
    • serves as homeostasis and key player in aggression, sexual arousal, and emotion
    • helps control endocrine functions and autonomic NS
  35. Function of the inferior and superior colliculi
    sensorimotor reflexes
  36. function of the cerebellum
    refined motor movements
  37. function of medulla oblongata
    vital functioning (breathing and digestion)
  38. function of the reticular formation
    arousal and alertness
  39. the hindbrain is composed of the vital functions for survival
  40. the hindbrain and midbrain developed earlier with the brain stem while the forebrain was said to have developed later
  41. cerebral cortex
    outer cvering of cerebral hemisphere
  42. pons
    above medulla, contained sensory and motor pathway between cortex and medulla
  43. cerebellum function
    maintains balance, posture,and coordinates body movement
  44. midbrain function
    receives sensory and motor info from the body and causes involuntary reflexes triggered by visual and audio stimuli
  45. supercolliculi function
    receives visual sensory input
  46. inferiorcolliculi function
    receives sense into from auditory system
  47. 2 types of nuclei in the brain
    • inferior
    • superior
  48. the forebrain has greater influence on these 3
    • behavior
    • intellect
    • emotion
  49. neuropsychology
    study of functions and behaviors associated w/specific regions of the brain
  50. eletroencephalogram
    test showing activity generated by large groups of neurons
  51. function of lateral hypothalmus
    special receptors to trigger hunger and thirst
  52. ventromedial hypothalamus
    signals the brain to stop eating
  53. anterior hypothalamus
    controls sexual behavior
  54. posterior pituitary
    axonal projections, site of release of hypothalamus hormones ADH and oxytocin
  55. pineal gland function
    secretes melatonin and helps in biological rhythms
  56. Melatonin function
    regulates circadian rhythms
  57. basal ganglia function
    coordinate muscle movement when it is received from cortex and relayed to brain and spinal cord
  58. extrapyramidal motor system function
    gathers info about body position and brings it to CNS from basal ganglia
  59. parkinsons is a illness due to the destruction of the basal ganglia
  60. septal nuclei function
    primary pleasure center for the brain
  61. amygdala function
    plays roles in defensive and aggressive behaviors
  62. hippocampus function
    learning and memory processes, LT memory, and redistribute remote memory to cerebral cortex
  63. fornix function
    projection that helpshippo to communicate w/ other portions of the limbic system
  64. 4 Lobes of the cortex surface
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
  65. 3 parts the hypothalamus is made up of
    • lateral
    • ventromedial
    • anterior
  66. antidiurectic hormone goes by oxytocin and vasopressin
  67. septal nuclei function
    pleasure centers of the brain, possibly linked to addiction
  68. what can occur due to amygdala damage?
    (i.e. lesions)
    agression and fear decrease and hypersexual states increase
  69. most recent brain to have evolved and its pseudo name
    • cerebral cortex
    • neo cortex
  70. the outer surface of the brain is the
    cerebral cortex
  71. 2 frontal lobe regions
    • prefrontal cortex
    • motor cortex
  72. the cerebrum is divided into two halves called
    cerebral hemispheres
  73. the cerebral cortex contains numbers bumps and ridges called (2)
    • gyri
    • sulci
  74. the gyri and sulci of the cerebral cortex helps to provide the brain with an increase of surface area
  75. prefrontal cortex functions
    supervise and directs operations of other brain regions
  76. association area function
    area the integrates input from diverse brain regions
  77. PFC is meant to not store memories, but to remind you to remember something ex wake up or relax depending on situation
    • **PreFocusCenter
    • You remind yourself to focus on a task and react based on what you had to remember previously**
  78. association area example
    • need to solve a complex problem so you go to different parts of your brain to come up with a solution
  79. function of the central region of the parietal lobe
    makes it possible to orient oneself and other objects in 3D space to be able to manipulate them
  80. Occipital lobe region
    • visual cortex (aka striate cortex)
    • located at the rear end of the brain
  81. **Not necessary**
    striate cortex
    considered striped because of look under microscope`
  82. 2 temporal lobe regions
    • auditory cortex
    • wernicke's area
  83. lobes work with each other despite differences in their actions
  84. anterograde amnesia
    cannot produce LT memories
  85. retrograde amnesia
    cannot remember anything before brain injury
  86. projection area (2 definitions)
    • areas the perform simple perceptual or motor tasks
    • where electrochem energy is sent after transduction to perform the simple tasks
  87. primary motor cortex
    initiates voluntary movement by neural signals down the SC to the muscle
  88. somatosensory cortex
    destination for all incoming sense signals for taste, temp, pressure, and pain
  89. auditory cortex
    primary site of sound processing
  90. wernick's area
    site of language reception and comprehension
  91. temporal lobe
    mem, emo, and language processing
  92. contralaterally
    one side of the brain communicates with opposite side of the body
  93. ipsilaterally
    one side of the brain communicates with same side of body
  94. dominant hemisphere of the brain functions
    • L
    • analytic in function and analyzes detail (math,logic language skills)
  95. nondominant hemisphere of the brain functions
    • R
    • intuition, creativity, emo tone and analyzes it, and spatial processing
  96. 7 important neurotransmitters
    • dopamine
    • GABA
    • acetylcholine
    • epineneprhine
    • serotonine
    • endorphin
  97. Acetylcholine location
    • CNS
    • PNS
  98. Function of acetylcholine in PNS
    function in CNS
    • transmit nerve impulses to muscles (more in PSNS and less in SNS)
    • attention and arousal
  99. Epinephrine, nonepinephrine, and dopamine are related to a class of neurotransmitters called
    and are classified as
    • catecholamines
    • monoamines (biogenic amines)
  100. **catcheloamines play an important role in experiencing emotions**
  101. Epinephrine = adrenaline
  102. nonepinephrine functions and other important knowledge (3)
    • controls alertness and wakeful
    • primary neuro of SNS (fight or flight)
    • acts locally
  103. epinephrine from adrenal medulla as a hormone increases anxiety as nonepinephrine increase decreases sadness
  104. dopamine function
    helps in the BG with smooth movements in high concentrations
  105. imbalance or loss of dopamine leads to Parkinson and shcizo
  106. serotonin function
    • plays roles in regulating moods, eating, sleeping, and dreaming
    • possibly contribute to depresion and mania w/ an increase, decreases causes depression
  107. GABA function
    stabilizing neural activity in the brain
  108. GABA acronym
    gamma aminobutyric acid
  109. neural crest
    cells @ edge of neural fold that will migrate throughout the body to form tissue
  110. alar plate in the neural tube will differentiate into
    sensory neurons
  111. basal plate in the neural tube will differentiate into
    motor neurons
  112. neuromodulators function
    • neuropeptides that are more complicated and have a longer effect on postsynaptic cell
    • (i.e. endorphins)
  113. hormones
    chemical messengers in the endocrine system
  114. hyperphysical portal system functions
    • connects hypo and pit
    • maintains them by the release of hormones from paracrine
  115. pit gland
    • master gland located at the base of the brain and is divided of anterior and posterior parts
    • **is regulated by hypot**
  116. anterior pit gland function
    • master gland
    • release hormones to regulate endocrine gland activity
  117. adrenal glands is divided into two parts
    (top of kid)
    • adrenal medulla
    • adrenal cortex
  118. function of adrenal medulla
    release epine and nonepineas part of SNS
  119. function of adrenal cortex (2)
    • produces hormones called corticosteroids  as well as cortisol
    • produces sex hormones (i.e. testos and estro)
  120. cortisol
    stress hormone
  121. innate behavior
    behavior that is embedded in us due to evolution
  122. learned behavior
    is behavior we do due to what we see and experience
  123. adaptive value
    a trait/behavior that benefits a species which influences their fitness
  124. concordance rates
    likelihood both twins exhibit the same trait
  125. placenta transports water, oxygen, and food to baby, while transporting waste to mother
  126. primitive reflexes
    reflexes that disappear with age
  127. rooting reflex
    automatic reflex one continues to do
  128. moro reflex
    reacts to movements of heads by flinging and retraction of arms when crying
  129. babinski reflex
    toes spread when foot is stimulated
  130. grasping reflex
    when an infant graps their fingers or toes if object is placed in hand
  131. gross motor skills
    incorporate movement from large muscles and whole body movement
  132. fine motor skills
    smaller muscles, specific and delicate movements
  133. parallel play
    children play along side w/o influencing others behavior
  134. 3 forms of threshold
    • absolute
    • threshold of conscious perception
    • difference
  135. sensation (transduction)
    conversion of phys,electromag,auditory, and signals from in and out of our environment to electric signals in NS
  136. perception
    processing info to make sense of it
  137. sensory receptors
    neurons that respond to stimuli and trigger electrical signals
  138. ganglia
    a collection of neuroncell bodies found out of CNS
  139. **hair cells
    respond to movement of fluid in the inner ear structures
  140. **photoreceptors
    respond to EM waves in the visible spectrum
  141. **nocireceptors
    respond to painful or moxious stimuli
  142. **thermoreceptors
    respond to changes in temp
  143. **osmoreceptors
    respond to osmolarity of the blood
  144. **olfactory receptors
    respond to volatile compounds
  145. taste receptors
    respond to dissolved compounds
  146. threshold
    the minimum amount of stimulus that renders a difference in perception
  147. absolute threshold
    minimum stimuli needed to activate sensory system
  148. threshold = limina
  149. subliminal perception
    perception of a stimuli below a given threshold
  150. differential threshold
    the min diff in magnitude between 2 stim before one can perceive this difference
  151. webers law
    constant ratio between the change in stim mag needed to produce a just noticeable difference (JND) and magnitude of original stim
  152. signal detection theory
    changes in our perception of the same stimuli depending on psycho or environmental context
  153. response bias
    subjects to systematically respond to a stimulus in a way due to nonsensory factors
  154. chorodial vessels functions
    intermingling blood vessels supplies the eye w/nutrients
  155. retina function
    contain photoreceptors that transduce light into info the brain can process
  156. cornea function
    gathers and focuses incoming light
  157. dilator pupillae function
    opens pupil undr sympathetic stimuli
  158. constrictor pupillae function
    constricts pupil under sympathetic stim
  159. produces aqueous humor (2)
    • ciliary body
    • posterior chamber
  160. aqueous humor function
    bathes the front part of the eye and then drains it into the canal of schlemm
  161. lens function
    controls refraction of incoming light
  162. ciliary muscle function
    contracts uner parasympathetic control
  163. vitreous function
    gel that supports the retina
  164. accomodation function
    ciliary muscle contraction causes lens to change shape
  165. cones function
    used for vision to sense fine details
  166. rods function
    reduced light, only allows sensations of light and dark contains rhodopsin to permit night vision
  167. amacrine & horizontal cells function
    receives input from multiple retinal cells in same area before the info it passed to ganglion cells
  168. visual pathways
    refer to both physical and anatomical connection between eyes and brain and flow of visual info along the connection
  169. parallel processing
    ability to simultaneously analyze and combine info regarding color, shape, and motion
  170. parvocellular cells function
    detects shapes and have high color spatial resolution to help see fine detail
  171. magnocellular cells function
    detect motion, have high temporal resolution, decrease spatial detail
  172. superior colliculus function
    controls some responses to visual stimuli and reflexive eye movements
  173. pinna (auricle) function
    channel sound waves into external auditory canal
  174. external auditory canal
    directs SW to ear drum
  175. tympanic membrane (ear drum)
    vibrates in phase w/ incoming SW
  176. ossicle (small bones of middle ear)
    transmit and amplify the vibrations from the TM to inner ear
  177. eustachian tube
    equalize pressure between middle ear and environment
  178. endolymph
    K+ rich fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth
  179. perilymph
    simultaneously transmits vibrations from outside and cushions the inner ear structures
  180. round window
    mem hole in cochlea, permits the perilymph to move w/in the cochlea
  181. utricle & saccule
    used as part of a balancing apparatus and determines one's orientation in 3D
  182. otoliths
    modified hair cells that cover the utricle and saccule
  183. scalae
    the name of the three parts that make up the cochlea
  184. superior olive
    localizes sound
  185. inferior colliculus
    startle reflex and helps keep the eyes fixed ona point as the head turns
  186. tonotpically
    spatial organization thats based upon frequency
  187. two point threshold
    • min distance necessary between 2 points of stim on the skin.
    • points will be felt as two distinct stim
  188. physiological zero
    judgement of temp reaction to normal temp (cold and hot difference)
  189. gate theory of pain
    special gating muscle that can turn pain signal on and off. Affects if we see pain.
  190. proprioception (kinesthetic sense)
    • abilities to tell where one's body is in space
    • (i.e. with eyes cosed, you can describe your location and position of your hand)
  191. bottoms up processing
    • object recog by parallel processing and feature detection
    • combine to create cohesive image before determining object identificiation
    • (data driven)
  192. top down process
    • processing driven by memories and expectations that allow the brain to recognize objects as a whole
    • (conceptually driven)
  193. perceptual organization
    • ability to use both object recognition types as well as sensory clues
    • (is said to be similar to gestalt principles)
  194. gestalt principles
    ways for the brain to infer missing parts of an incomplete thing
  195. law of proximity
    elements close together are perceived as one unit
  196. laws of similarty
    similar objects tend to be grouped together
  197. laws of good continuation
    elements in the same pathway tend to be grouped together
  198. subjective contours
    perceiving shapes that are not actually present in the stimulus
  199. laws of closure
    space enclosed by a contour tends to be perceived as a complete figure
  200. law of pragnanz
    perceptual organization will be regular and symmetric as possible
  201. 2 main typesof object recognition
    • bottoms up
    • top down
  202. 5 laws to Gestalt principles (governed by pragnanz)
    • proximity
    • similarity
    • good continuation
    • subjective contours
    • closures
  203. 3 types of nerve cells
    • sensory
    • motor
    • interneurons
  204. how a reflex work
    • sensory signals to SP which signals to Brain
    • while the signal to the brain occurs, SP signals muscles to perform a reflex
    • when signals finally get to the brain, everything occurs and resolves itself
  205. peripheral NS is made up of 2 types of tissue
    # and name nerves
    • nerve tissue
    • fiber tissue
    • 12 cranial nerves
    • 31 spinal nerves
  206. Somatic NS consists of 2 types of neurons
    and its function
    • sensory and motor neurons
    • transmits info via afferent (sensory) fibers
  207. autonomic NS function
    manages involuntary muscles associated w/internal organs and glands
  208. nervous system is made up of (2)
    1 of the two make up (2)
    the other 1 make up (2)
    one of the two make up (2)
    • NS makes up the central and peripheral NS
    • The central NS is comprised of the SP and brain
    • the other NS (peripheral) is made up of somatic and autonomic
    • the autonomic is made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic
  209. parasympathetic NS is responsible for rest and digest, conserving energy while the sympathetic is responsible or fight or flight, activated by stress
  210. meninges
    covers the brain w/ thick connective tissue
  211. 3 layers of meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  212. cerebral spinal fluid is produced by cells the line the ventricles of the brain
  213. the forebrain was developed later on while the brain stem was developed earlier
  214. the hindbrain have the vital functions for survival
  215. 3 subdivisions of the embryonic brain
    • prosencephalon (fore)
    • mesencephalon (mid)
    • rhombencephalon (hind)
  216. the prosecephalon (fore) is made up of 2 structures
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
  217. the rhombencephalon (hind) is made up of 2 structures
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon
  218. the brain develops from the neural tube  which is composed of 3 swellings called and correspond to
    the corresponding parts divide into two more swellings to create a total of 5 swellings
    • prosen
    • mesen
    • rhomben
  219. myelencephalon makes up what
    metencephalon makes up what
    in the fully developed brain
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons and cerebellum
  220. midbrain general function
    involuntary reflexes triggered by visual or audio stimulus
  221. forebrain has greater influence on human behaviors, intellect, and emotion
  222. telencephalon makes up what
    diencephalon make up what
    in a fully developed brain
    • cerebral cortex, BG, and limbic system
    • thalamus, hypothal, posterior pituitary glad, pineal gland
  223. how they studied how the brain to determine its functions
    • insert tiny electrodes in the brain and applied stimuli such as hot and cold to specific regions
    • the stimuli caused individual neurons to fire leading to activation of behavioral/perception process
    • ex: see light flash when the electrodes stim the visual cortex
  224. electroencephalgram (EEG)
    helps to study electrical activity generated by the brain by large amounts of neurons
  225. regional cerebral  blood flow (rCBF)
    • detects broad patterns in neural activity based on increased blood flow to diff parts of the brain
    • specific cognitive function activates certain regions of the brain, and blood flow goes directly to it
  226. 3 well known noninvasive scanning devices that creates pics of the brain
    • PET
    • MRI
    • CT
  227. 4 F's basic functions of the hypothal
    • feeding
    • fighting
    • flighting
    • fucking
  228. Destruction of these areas of the hypothalamus and what it results in
    • L-lacks hunger
    • VM-gets hungry
    • A-sex drive decreases
  229. Image Upload 1
    **know the parts and location**
  230. Image Upload 2
    **know parts and location**
  231. septal nuclei is associated with addiction
  232. frontal lobe 2 regions
    • prefrontal
    • motor
  233. prefrontal lobe function
    supervises and directs the operations of other brain regions such as emotion, memory, LT planning, etc.
  234. association area
    an area that integrates input from diverse brain regions (i.e. to solve a complex puzzle)
  235. projection areas
    performing of more rudimentary or simple perceptual and motor tasks
  236. Image Upload 3
    **learn what is done**
  237. know where
    primary cortex
    somatosensory cortex
    post central gyrus
    precentral gyrus
    central sulcus
  238. central sets of muscles require fine motor control, they take up space in the cortex relative to their size (the more muscles, the larger area it takes up)
  239. central region of parietal lobe function
    helps to view an object as being 3D as well as being able to manipulate its shape
  240. occipital lobe contains
    visual cortex (striate cortex)
  241. temporal lobe contains
    • auditory cortex
    • wernicke's area
  242. all lobes work together, however, dominance in hemispheres do occur
    • dom hem = L
    • non dom = R
  243. functions of the dominant hemisphere
    managing details such as language, logic, and math skills
  244. function of the non dom hemispheres
    associated with intuition, creativity, music cognition, etc.
  245. how the visual system functions in the dom hemisphere
    non dom hemisphere
    • letters and words
    • faces
  246. how the auditory system functions in the dom hemisphere
    non dom hemisphere
    • language related sounds
    • music
  247. how language functions in the dom hemispheres
    non dom hemispheres
    • speech, reading, writing, arithmetic
    • emotions
  248. how movement functions in the dom hem
    non dom hem
    • complex voluntary movement
    • no functions
  249. how spatial processes functions in the dom hem
    non dom hem
    • no function
    • geometry, sense of direction
  250. function of acetylcholine  an what it is
    • NT used by moving muscles of somatic NS as well as the paraNS
    • used in the brain for arousal and attention
  251. hypothalamus links the endo and nervous system
  252. the linking of endo to nervous sys function
    regulation of hormones of the pituitary gland
  253. hypo + the pituitary gland = (control)
    paracrine release of hormones into hpyophyseal portal system
  254. how the paracrine releases hormones into the blood stream
    • paracrine releases hormones into the hypophyseal portal system which activates the hypothalamus.
    • The hypo regulates hormones in pituitary which then the hormones are released and travel to endocrine glands
  255. 3 types of studies done to see the degree of genetic influence on individual
    • family studies
    • twin studies
    • adoption studies
  256. family studies
    family is used and there are assumptions that genetically related individuals are more related that unrelated individuals
  257. example of family studies schizophrenia
    genetically speaking, in families, they are 13x more higher for kids to develop it if parents are schiz because it is hereditary. However, we cant determine if its all hered because if the schiz parents live with the kids, then they are more likely to develop the acts of schiz
  258. twin studies
    comparing concordance rates for traits between monozy (100% genes shared) and dizy (50% genes shared), and better able to distinguish relative effects of a shared environment
  259. example of twin studies
    • measure genetic effects by comparing traits in twins raised together and apart
    • MZ raised separately were still sim than DZ raised together
    • the strong genes carry into personality
  260. example of adoption study
    • bio+adopt child
    • adopt+adopt
    • IQ of adopted has similar IQ to its bio parents
    • IQ and behavior similar to bio parents of adopted child
  261. Image Upload 4neurolation process
    • ectoderm overlays the notochord and gorms neural groove surrounded by neural folds
    • neural groove deepens and the neural crest + neural fold close to create neural tube (CNS)
  262. neural crest
    calls @ edge of neural fold will migrate throughout the body to form disparate tissue
  263. What does the alar plate in the neural tube differentiate to?
    basal plate?
    • sensory neurons
    • motor neurons
  264. neuromodulators
    • neuropeptides, are more complicated and have longer effects on post synaptic cell
    • (i.e. endorphins)
  265. separation and stranger anxiety 7m-1y
    parallel play 1-2y (progresses to playing with one another)
    gender identity 3y
    conform w/ peers and romantic feelings 5y
    same sex friendship no feelings 6-12y
    expression of diff relationships 12+
  266. hormones
    • chemical messengers in the endocrine sys
    • slower due to transportation through blood
  267. hypophyseal portal system
    connects hypo and pit and maintains them by release of hormone from paracrine
  268. function of pituit G
    master gland at the base of the brain, anterior and posterior, and hypothalamus regulates it
  269. anterior pit G
    master gland as well, releases horm to reg endo G activity
  270. adrenal glands location and 2 parts
    • top of kidneys
    • adrenal medulla
    • adrenal cortex
  271. gonads make sex hormones in high conc and increase libido makes you horny
    increase in testosterone makes you angry
  272. receptors in PNS forward to stim in CNS and it is not processes until it enters the CNS during sensation
  273. 3 types of thresholds***
    • absolute
    • threshold of conscious perception
    • difference threshold
  274. threshold example***
    you can tell when warm water gets cold easily, however, it occurring gradually is less noticeable
  275. subliminal perception***
    can percept the stim, but wont cause much of an effect or be noticed
  276. differential threshold example***
    • just noticeable diff
    • needs to focus the ratio between the change in stim and the original value
  277. difference threshold example: Weber's law
    for a stim of increase mag, the diff from the original must be large to produce a just noticeable diff.
  278. signal detection experiment
    trials in which a signal may or may not be present
  279. how the signal detection experiment works
    • 2 trials
    • Catch=signal present
    • noise=signal is absent
    • After the trials, the subject has to indicate whether or not a signal was given
    • Results:
    • hits=correctly perceive signal
    • miss=incorrectly receives signals
    • false alarm=perceives signal was not given
    • correct -=correctly identifies no signal given
  280. adaptation
    is a way the mind and body try to focus more on stim that is environmental and less on whats necessay
  281. 2 types of adaptation and examples
    • physical - dark room, eyes adjust to the darkness
    • psychological - getting dressed, we dont pay attention to the fact we are doing it
  282. how the eye can see
  283. in the eye, the fovea has a large amount of cones only
  284. in the eye, the macula has a large amount of cones and has rods too
  285. in the eye, the retina has lower amounts of cones, and large amounts of rods
  286. blindspot
    when the optic nerve leaves the eye, there are no photoreceptors
  287. iris composition
    dilator and constrictor pupillae
  288. ciliary muscle functions
    contracts and pulls on suspensory ligaments which change the shape of the lens
  289. retina is part of the CNS and develops as an outburst of the brain
  290. duplicity theory of vision states
    retina contains 2 kinds of photo receptors, those that detect light and dark, and those that detect color
  291. the ganglian cells represent the combined activity of rods and cones, however, as info from photoreceptors combine, it results in a loss of details
  292. as the number of receptors converge into ganglian cells increase, resolution decreases
  293. There are larger amounts of rods than cones, so less cones mean increased viewing to fine detail (those who are color blind)
  294. amacrine and horizontal cells receive input from multiple retinal cells in the same area before based onto ganglian cells, so the info differs in each bipolar cell which helps us to perceive sharps images and contrast perception
  295. info from optic chiadm goes to (3)
    • lateral geniculate nucleus
    • visual cortex
    • occipital lobe
  296. superior colliculus function
    controls some responses to visual stimuli and reflexive eye movements
  297. parvocellular cells function
    • have high color spatial resolution and allows us to see very fine detail
    • but can only work with slow moving objects due to low temporal resolution
  298. visual pathways visual field explained
    • the visual field on the right side projects on the left half of each eyes retina and vice versa
    • fibers of nasal half of the retina crosses paths in optic chiasm
    • because temporal fibers from the nasal visual field do not cross in the chiasm, he left visual field from each eye projects to right side of the brain and vice versa
  299. optic tracts
    the recognized pathways after learning optic chiasm visual
  300. auditory pathway explained
    • sound reaches pinna which channels the waves into the external auditory canal (EAC)
    • once in EAC, it directs the sound waves to the tympanic mem (TM), which vibrates based on incoming sound (HVHF, LVLF)
    • the TM divides outter & middle ear and is right next to the ossicles
    • malleus is connected to te TM so it acts on the inus which acts on the stapes
    • stapes rests on oval window of cochlea which leads to the inner ear
  301. cochlea is divided into three parts called scalae and run the length of the cochlea
  302. the middle scala of the cochlea houses the organ of corti which
    rests on flexible mem called basilar
  303. organ of corti is bathed in endolymph and the top of it is called tectoral mem
Card Set
behavioral sciences
BS definitions
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