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  1. begging the question
    either explicitly or implicitly using as the premise of an argument the same claim that is asserted as the conclusion of the argument
  2. complex question
    formulating a question in a way that inappropriately presupposes that a definite answer has already been given to an unasked question about an open issue or that treats a series of questions as if the same answer will be given to each of the questions in the series
  3. question begging definition
    using a questionable definition, disguised as an empirical premise, to support an empirical conclusion, which has the effect of making the empirical claim at issue by true definition
  4. incompatible premise
    attempting to draw a conclusion from an inconsistent or incompatible premises
  5. contradiction between premise and conclusion
    drawing a conclusion that is incompatible with at least one of the premises
  6. fallacy of the elusive normative premise
    drawing a moral, legal, or aesthetic judgment without using a discernable normative premise that provides a warrant for it
  7. fallacy of denying the antecedent
    • if A, then B
    •  -A
    •  -B
  8. fallacy of affirming the concequent
    • if A, then B
    •    B
    •    A
  9. fallacy of undistributed middle term
    drawing a conclusion in a syllogism in which the middle term in the premises is not distributed at least once
  10. fallacy of illicit distribution of an end term
    drawing a conclusion in a syllogism in which a distributed end term in the conclusion is not distributed in the premises
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