What is the basic unit of structure and function of all life?
What are the three most relevant levels of organization?
Cell, Multicellular organism and biosphere
What are the characteristics of all living organisms?
Responds to stimuli, adaptation, regulation of internal environment, acquisition of energy
What is the regulation of an organism's internal environment called?
what is the major driving force behind evolution?
what is the ultimate source of energy?
where are the instructions for an organism's metabolism and organization?
encoded in DNA
what is evolutionary adaptation?
modifications that make an organism suited for...
what are the levels of organization of organisms?
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
what is the order of levels of classification from smallest to largest?
Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
what are the three domains?
Bacteria, Eukaery, archaerya
in the biosphere, chemicals_______ and energy __________.
define experimental variable
Thing that is deliberately changed during an experiment to test
chnops stand for what six elements of life?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
what are the three subatomic particles and their charges?
protron-pos., electron-neg., and neutron-neutral
what is the valence shell?
the outer most shell that is most stable with 8 electrons
what is changed in an atom for it to become an isotope?
number of neutrons
true or false, atoms react with one another to fill their valence shells.
define ionic bond
the bond that forms when electrons are transferred
define chemical reaction
the exchange of electrons between atoms
describe the ph scale
7 neutral upwards more basic downward acidic
a substance that resists change in ph
what are the three mechanisms that humans use to stabilize their ph?
Metabolism, respiration and hormonal
true/false plants have more types of enzymes in general
what types of bonds are formed in organic molecules?
a carbon atom can form as many as _____ number of bonds in a organic molecule
define functional group of an organic molecule
a group of molecules acting the same way
large organic molecule with many subunits
In metabolism, what is the function of lipids? of carbohydrates?
long-term energy, short-term energy
the sugar that is transported in plants
pollysaccharide in plants that act as structural support
polysaccharide animals use as the storage of glucose
what is cholesterol's important function?
support the plasma membrane
the cells' plasma membrane is made up of a ______________
what are the functions of proteins in living organisms?
defense, metabolism, support, transport
when a protein has been cooked or destroyed by other means
what is ATP and what is it's function
adenine and two other groups. the major source of energy for all living things
molecules that speed up chemical reactions
what is the most essential ingredient in organic molecules?
define dehydration reaction
removal of a hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom from two molecules to join them together
what are amino acids?
building blocks of proteins
what is the function of RNA?
to carry info in DNA to ribosomes
what is the reason that cells are so small?
surface to area ratio. more production
what structure is not found in prokaryotic cells?
semi fluid interior of a cell
what is the function of the golgi apparatus?
creates lysosomes, communicates with ER's for various uses. secretes
where would you find the highest concentration of ribosomes in a cell?
what is the function of rough ER?
synthesize various proteins
what is the function of smooth ER?
produce various lipids
going out of the cell
what organelle is the powerhouse of animal cells?
what is the energy currency of plants or animal cells?
define potential energy
true/false organic molecules use chemical energy
energy cannot be created or _________, but can be __________ from one form to another
energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of what?
what is an enzyme?
a substance, usually a protein, that speeds up chemical reactions
true/false an enzyme is not used up during the chemical reaction
what does a coenzyme do?
assists enzymes in reactions
what is the function of the plasma membrane?
let things in and out
define active transport
transportation through membrane that requires energy
which of the following is NOT a type of transport systems to get things in an out of cells?active, passive, simple diffusion, membrane diffusion, facilitated diffusion, bulk transport
photosynthesis produces what two products?
photosynthesis uses what 2 different but connected pathways?
light cycle and the calvin cycle
what organelle carries out photosynthesis in the plant?
pigment that captures light energy
in what structure is the is chlorophyll located inside the chloroplast?
where does the oxygen released in plants come from?
in what structure in the chloroplast does the light reaction take place?
the calvin cycle takes place in what structure of the chloroplast?
true/false ATP is formed in the calvin cycle from high energy electrons going through the electron transport chain
false light reaction
hydrogen ions trapped behind the thylakoid membrane causes a concentration gradient from whence ________ is formed
solar energy is captured by _____ molecules in the pigment complex, given to reaction center and then transferred to an ______________
antenna, electron acceptor
what is chemiosmosis?
ATP production tied to a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane
the calvin cycle uses what 2 substances created in the light reaction?
the calvin cycle reduces ______into________.
carbon dioxide, glucose
what is RuBP
a 5 carbon molecule used in the Calvin cycle
what type of plant opens their stomata at night?
what is the greenhouse effect?
where carbon dioxide in our atmosphere traps radiant heat from the sun and warms the world
what substance is broken down to release energy in cellular respiration
ATP is mostly created in what organelle of an animal cell
define cellular respiration
within a cell, breaking down of O2 and organic molecules to produce energy
the one phase of cellular respiration that occurs inside the mitochondria
what are the 4 phases of cellular respiration?
glycolysis, preperatory phase, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
what three products are produced during complete glucose breakdown?
ATP, CO2 H20
what is the net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis?
folds of membrane in the cell that assist cellular respiration
put the following events in order for the citric acid cycle: a. a 6 carbon molecule oxidized and NADH forms b.C02 is released c.an enzyme speeds the removal of an C2 acetyl group from C0a D. Oxidation reaction and FADH2 and another NADH forms E. Acetyle group joins with 4 carbon molecule F. High-energy phosphate makes ATP
C, E, A, B, F, D
what is the final acceptor in the electron transport chain in animals?
why is fermentation important?
it produces NAD+
oxidation is the ____of electrons and reduction is the________of electron
why is cell division essential to life?
without it we couldn't reproduce or repair damaged cells
define binary fission and what type of organism performs this?
prokaryotic cells use binary fission to make exact replica
during which phase does the cell perform its usual functions?
the splitting apart of the cytoplasm and the division of organelles
human chromosomes contain ____pairs of chromosome
what is a centromere?
where the chromatids are attached
two examples of gamete cells
sperm and egg
2 examples of haploid cells
sperm and egg
what are the phases of mitosis?
pay me any time... prophase metaphase, anaphase, telephase
when a cell decides to self destruct
what are the two sex chromosomes and which one is longer?
X and Y X is longer
through what four methods does variations in sexual reproduction happen
independent assortment of homologous chromosomes, crossing over, fertilization, changes in chromosome numbers
the product of sperm and egg during sexual reproduction
list 4 ways that meiosis differs from mitosis.
synapsis, crossing over, genetic variation, produces haploid cells rather than diploid
located on gene locus of homologous pair. decides different traits
define dominant allele
masks the expression of the other allele
the trait that is not seen in the other individual
the alleles an individual has after fertilization
physical appearance of the individual
an organism with 2 identical alleles at a gene locus
an organism with 2 different alleles at a gene locus
the trait expressed is a cross between what either parent's trait exhibits
affected male offspring always receive their x-linked recessive mutant allele from their mother or father
traits passed together due to location on chromosome
what is the genetic material in the nucleus?
nucleotides are composed of what 3 materials?
Base, sugar, phosphate
what are the four bases of DNA
Thymene, Adenine, Cytosene, Guanine
in what ways does DNA differ from RNA
DNA has deoxyribose as its sugar, RNA has different functions than DNA and RNA is not a double helix
change in DNA sequence
in complementary base pairing, what bases pair up for DNA?
thymene w/ adenine and cytosene w/ guanine
what is meant by the statement that DNA replication is semiconservative?
the old strand is present in the new copy
3 base sequence corresponding to a specific amino acid
what is generally universal for all living things
the genetic code
what is the function for messenger RNA
serves as template for protein synthesis
what is the function of transfer RNA?
carry amino acids to ribosomes
what are the three steps of polypeptide production?
elongation, termination and initiation
what are the jumpng genes called?
what are the levels of organization in order from smallest to largest