biology final

  1. What is the basic unit of structure and function of all life?
    the cell
  2. What are the three most relevant levels of organization?
    Cell, Multicellular organism and biosphere
  3. What are the characteristics of all living organisms?
    Responds to stimuli, adaptation, regulation of internal environment, acquisition of energy
  4. What is the regulation of an organism's internal environment called?
  5. what is the major driving force behind evolution?
    Natural selection
  6. what is the ultimate source of energy?
  7. where are the instructions for an organism's metabolism and organization?
    encoded in DNA
  8. what is evolutionary adaptation?
    modifications that make an organism suited for...
  9. what are the levels of organization of organisms?
    cell, tissue, organ, organ system
  10. what is the order of levels of classification from smallest to largest?
    Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  11. what are the three domains?
    Bacteria, Eukaery, archaerya
  12. in the biosphere, chemicals_______ and energy __________.
    cycle, flows
  13. define experimental variable
    Thing that is deliberately changed during an experiment to test
  14. chnops stand for what six elements of life?
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
  15. what are the three subatomic particles and their charges?
    protron-pos., electron-neg., and neutron-neutral
  16. what is the valence shell?
    the outer most shell that is most stable with 8 electrons
  17. what is changed in an atom for it to become an isotope?
    number of neutrons
  18. true or false, atoms react with one another to fill their valence shells.
  19. define ionic bond
    the bond that forms when electrons are transferred
  20. define chemical reaction
    the exchange of electrons between atoms
  21. describe the ph scale
    7 neutral upwards more basic downward acidic
  22. define buffer
    a substance that resists change in ph
  23. what are the three mechanisms that humans use to stabilize their ph?
    Metabolism, respiration and hormonal
  24. true/false plants have more types of enzymes in general
  25. what types of bonds are formed in organic molecules?
    covalent bonds
  26. a carbon atom can form as many as _____ number of bonds in a organic molecule
  27. define functional group of an organic molecule
    a group of molecules acting the same way
  28. define polymer
    large organic molecule with many subunits
  29. In metabolism, what is the function of lipids? of carbohydrates?
    long-term energy, short-term energy
  30. define sucrose
    the sugar that is transported in plants
  31. define cellulose
    pollysaccharide in plants that act as structural support
  32. define glycerol
    polysaccharide animals use as the storage of glucose
  33. what is cholesterol's important function?
    support the plasma membrane
  34. the cells' plasma membrane is made up of a ______________
    phospholipid bilayer
  35. what are the functions of proteins in living organisms?
    defense, metabolism, support, transport
  36. define denaturization
    when a protein has been cooked or destroyed by other means
  37. what is ATP and what is it's function
    adenine and two other groups. the major source of energy for all living things
  38. define enzyme
    molecules that speed up chemical reactions
  39. what is the most essential ingredient in organic molecules?
  40. define dehydration reaction
    removal of a hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom from two molecules to join them together
  41. what are amino acids?
    building blocks of proteins
  42. what is the function of RNA?
    to carry info in DNA to ribosomes
  43. what is the reason that cells are so small?
    surface to area ratio. more production
  44. what structure is not found in prokaryotic cells?
  45. define cytoplasm
    semi fluid interior of a cell
  46. what is the function of the golgi apparatus?
    creates lysosomes, communicates with ER's for various uses. secretes
  47. where would you find the highest concentration of ribosomes in a cell?
  48. what is the function of rough ER?
    synthesize various proteins
  49. what is the function of smooth ER?
    produce various lipids
  50. define exocytosis
    going out of the cell
  51. what organelle is the powerhouse of animal cells?
  52. what is the energy currency of plants or animal cells?
  53. define potential energy
    stored energy
  54. true/false organic molecules use chemical energy
  55. energy cannot be created or _________, but can be __________ from one form to another
    destroyed, changed
  56. energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of what?
    usable energy
  57. what is an enzyme?
    a substance, usually a protein, that speeds up chemical reactions
  58. true/false an enzyme is not used up during the chemical reaction
  59. what does a coenzyme do?
    assists enzymes in reactions
  60. what is the function of the plasma membrane?
    let things in and out
  61. define active transport
    transportation through membrane that requires energy
  62. which of the following is NOT a type of transport systems to get things in an out of cells?active, passive, simple diffusion, membrane diffusion, facilitated diffusion, bulk transport
    membrane diffusion
  63. photosynthesis produces what two products?
    glucose, oxygen
  64. photosynthesis uses what 2 different but connected pathways?
    light cycle and the calvin cycle
  65. what organelle carries out photosynthesis in the plant?
  66. define chlorophyll
    pigment that captures light energy
  67. in what structure is the is chlorophyll located inside the chloroplast?
    thylakoid membrane
  68. where does the oxygen released in plants come from?
  69. in what structure in the chloroplast does the light reaction take place?
    thylakoid membrane
  70. the calvin cycle takes place in what structure of the chloroplast?
  71. true/false ATP is formed in the calvin cycle from high energy electrons going through the electron transport chain
    false light reaction
  72. hydrogen ions trapped behind the thylakoid membrane causes a concentration gradient from whence ________ is formed
  73. solar energy is captured by _____ molecules in the pigment complex, given to reaction center and then transferred to an ______________
    antenna, electron acceptor
  74. what is chemiosmosis?
    ATP production tied to a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane
  75. the calvin cycle uses what 2 substances created in the light reaction?
    Nadh, ATP
  76. the calvin cycle reduces ______into________.
    carbon dioxide, glucose
  77. what is RuBP
    a 5 carbon molecule used in the Calvin cycle
  78. what type of plant opens their stomata at night?
    CAM plant
  79. what is the greenhouse effect?
    where carbon dioxide in our atmosphere traps radiant heat from the sun and warms the world
  80. what substance is broken down to release energy in cellular respiration
  81. ATP is mostly created in what organelle of an animal cell
  82. define cellular respiration
    within a cell, breaking down of O2 and organic molecules to produce energy
  83. define glycolysis
    the one phase of cellular respiration that occurs inside the mitochondria
  84. what are the 4 phases of cellular respiration?
    glycolysis, preperatory phase, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
  85. what three products are produced during complete glucose breakdown?
    ATP, CO2 H20
  86. what is the net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis?
  87. define cristae
    folds of membrane in the cell that assist cellular respiration
  88. put the following events in order for the citric acid cycle: a. a 6 carbon molecule oxidized and NADH forms b.C02 is released enzyme speeds the removal of an C2 acetyl group from C0a D. Oxidation reaction and FADH2 and another NADH forms E. Acetyle group joins with 4 carbon molecule F. High-energy phosphate makes ATP
    C, E, A, B, F, D
  89. what is the final acceptor in the electron transport chain in animals?
  90. why is fermentation important?
    it produces NAD+
  91. oxidation is the ____of electrons and reduction is the________of electron
    loss, gain
  92. why is cell division essential to life?
    without it we couldn't reproduce or repair damaged cells
  93. define binary fission and what type of organism performs this?
    prokaryotic cells use binary fission to make exact replica
  94. during which phase does the cell perform its usual functions?
  95. define cytokenesis
    the splitting apart of the cytoplasm and the division of organelles
  96. human chromosomes contain ____pairs of chromosome
  97. what is a centromere?
    where the chromatids are attached
  98. two examples of gamete cells
    sperm and egg
  99. 2 examples of haploid cells
    sperm and egg
  100. what are the phases of mitosis?
    pay me any time... prophase metaphase, anaphase, telephase
  101. define apoptosis
    when a cell decides to self destruct
  102. what are the two sex chromosomes and which one is longer?
    X and Y X is longer
  103. through what four methods does variations in sexual reproduction happen
    independent assortment of homologous chromosomes, crossing over, fertilization, changes in chromosome numbers
  104. define zygote
    the product of sperm and egg during sexual reproduction
  105. list 4 ways that meiosis differs from mitosis.
    synapsis, crossing over, genetic variation, produces haploid cells rather than diploid
  106. define alleles
    located on gene locus of homologous pair. decides different traits
  107. define dominant allele
    masks the expression of the other allele
  108. recessive allele
    the trait that is not seen in the other individual
  109. genotype
    the alleles an individual has after fertilization
  110. phenotype
    physical appearance of the individual
  111. homozygous
    an organism with 2 identical alleles at a gene locus
  112. heterozygous
    an organism with 2 different alleles at a gene locus
  113. incomplete dominance
    the trait expressed is a cross between what either parent's trait exhibits
  114. affected male offspring always receive their x-linked recessive mutant allele from their mother or father
  115. linkage group
    traits passed together due to location on chromosome
  116. what is the genetic material in the nucleus?
  117. nucleotides are composed of what 3 materials?
    Base, sugar, phosphate
  118. what are the four bases of DNA
    Thymene, Adenine, Cytosene, Guanine
  119. in what ways does DNA differ from RNA
    DNA has deoxyribose as its sugar, RNA has different functions than DNA and RNA is not a double helix
  120. define mutation
    change in DNA sequence
  121. in complementary base pairing, what bases pair up for DNA?
    thymene w/ adenine and cytosene w/ guanine
  122. what is meant by the statement that DNA replication is semiconservative?
    the old strand is present in the new copy
  123. define codon
    3 base sequence corresponding to a specific amino acid
  124. what is generally universal for all living things
    the genetic code
  125. what is the function for messenger RNA
    serves as template for protein synthesis
  126. what is the function of transfer RNA?
    carry amino acids to ribosomes
  127. what are the three steps of polypeptide production?
    elongation, termination and initiation
  128. what are the jumpng genes called?
  129. what are the levels of organization in order from smallest to largest
    atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, bioshpere
  130. what is the best acronym to remember classification, and what does it really stand for?
    kinky people can often find good sex then through domain on the front
  131. what is the order of the scientific process?
    observation, hypothesis, testing and conclusion
  132. define element
    a substance that cannot be broken down by chemicals into simpler substances
  133. define compound
    when atoms of two or more different elements bond together, the product is called a compound
  134. define molecule
    smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound
  135. define chromatin
    mass of thin threads within a chromosome that contains DNA material
  136. who is the father of genetics?
    gregory mendel
  137. law of independent assortment states that...
    all possible combination of factors can occur in the gametes
  138. making a protein requires what two steps?
    transcription and translation
  139. what are the three eras of earths history?
    paleozoic, mesozoic, and cenozoic
  140. glycolysis
    phase of cellular respiration that occurs outside the mitochondria
  141. 4 phases of cellular respiration
    glycolysis, prep phase, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
  142. energy dissipates
    energy will change but never dissapear
  143. kinetic energy
    energy in motion
  144. what is the RNA strand sequence for ACGCTA
    same as DNA sequence except change t to u UGCAU
  145. what is a polar bond?
    unequal sharing of electrons
Card Set
biology final
biology final at slcc 2009