What is cultural capital?
- it is a form of capital that expresses relationships to "legitimate knowledge and culture" resulting in a hierarchy of knowledge and culture.
- It is also the set of attitudes that encompass the acquisition of this knowledge.
- There are two main forms:
- institutionalized (diploma certifying skill or knowledge)
- embodied form (takes long exposure to acquire) that is the familiarity with the legitimate culture
Why does it matter that parenting differs by class?
- Lareau argues that parenting styles matter because of the skills and sets of knowledge transferred to the child that either help or hinder them in school.
- The family background is predictive of how well one does in school, their behavior, grades, test scores, attainment, and achievement.
What is Lareau's arguement about the consequences of the achievement of natural growth parenting style?
These children do not see adults as supportive because they have grown up with adults that do not have the time to fully engage in activities with them and receive discipline based on directives.
What is Lareau's arguement about the consequences of the concerted cultivation parenting style?
- These children are used to parents providing them with many activities and when they do not have this they are easily bored.
- Additionally, because of the time organized activities take, there is less connection with extended family members.
Explain what Lareau means by the phrase "institutional advantages", describe what they are.
- This means that children that are reared with similar methods to the institutions they interact with end up having a financial and educational advantage in life over children reared by other methods
- LANGUAGE: extensive language = better reading and language arts; negotiation = manners with others
- INTERACTIONS: time with adults positive, supportive = worthy of adult attention & can trust adults to help
- PROACTIVE PARENTS: ready to intervene on their child's behalf when they do not agree things are going right
According to Nelson, compare and contrast the ways that professional middle class and middle and working class parents view college
- COMPARE: college degree for all
- PMC: college is an extended childhood and they will support the child financially and emotionally during and past college. Goal is to be passionate and happy (not so much financial security)
- WMC: child is expected to be independent in college. college should provide skills for success and is mainly job training. child is expected to work after college.
What is “intensive mothering”?
- is childrearing that is
- emotionally absorbing
- financially expensive
- **This is seen as the primary responsibility of the mother and she is expected to be selfless and give her children priority.
What does Hays mean when she describes it as a "cultural logic"?
- Intensive mothering logic separates motherhood from professional paid work.
- This supports belief that children and motherhood are beyond market value because children are born innocent, pure, and "priceless" and that they deserve to be treated specially due to their sacred value to the family.
Compare "intensive mothering" and "concerted cultivation"
- Both sacrifice time, effort, and energy.
- Both are straining on mothers (CC not necessarily focused on mom) as she puts herself second to provide for her child
- Both need to be able to financially provide opportunities and experiences for the best care for the child.
Describe how the cultural logic of "intensive mothering" influences gendered patterns around parenting and the division of labor in the family.
- Caring for the child is "priceless" and beyond market value and produces the logic that children and motherhood is sacred because she is best suited to this work.
- Women are best suited because she has the knowledge AND awareness of the hard work involved in providing this care.
- Men are not cultivated with these techniques and knowledge and instead are found to be less concerned over "other things" allowing him to fully engage the child in play.
- This further reinforces the Guilt Gap, which explains that despite how much time fathers spend with their child, they do not worry about their child as much mothers do.
- Because women are best suited to provide consistent nurturing to the child, she reduces her paid work resulting in additional pressure for the father to increase his breadwinning opportunities.
What is the research consensus regarding how growing up with same-sex parents affects children?
- 77 scholarly studies addressing wellbeing of children with same-sex parents
- 73 conclude that these children fare no worse than other children
- Other 4 studies that stress disadvantages had samples of children that all endured family break-ups leaves researches to criticize the reliability of these studies.
Why is Americo a "family-friendly" workplace?
- Employees are offered options that should help with family-work balance and employers to not spend more money to rehire and retain new employees:
- 1) commit to their FT hours (childcare options, elder-care referrals)
- 2) reduced or flexible work hour schedules (paid maternity leave, PT, Flextime, job share, work from home, etc)
- **These are options expected to support workers family-work obligations and help the business retain employees.
Why are Americo families reluctant to take advantage of the "family friendly" policies the company offers?
- 1) Institutional: managers not allowing use of policies, workers fear affect on job (promotions, seen as not dedicated)
- 2) Workers enjoy their jobs: feel appreciated and valued at work (culture of work that feels like home & home feels like an unappreciated workplace)
What does Hochschild mean when she argues that for Americo employees, "home had become work, and work had become home. Somehow the two worlds had been reversed."
- Expectation that home should be a place to relax; but there are more demands and lack of appreciation.
- Women are on call for the needs of friends and family leading home to be more stressful instead of relaxing, like it is for men.
Explain what "the time bind" is.
- This refers to the blurred distinction between work, home and social environments due to changes in these environments.
- Home feels like unappreciated work and work provides recognition.
- Paid work is valued, domestic work is not.
What is Taylor's idea of scientific management?
Management practices that deconstruct a job to each action needed to complete the work and then maximize the efficiency to produce more labor in less time
How does Taylorization get incorporated into the Americo employee's family lives?
- implement Taylorization at home by
- completing tasks fast (time limits)
- outsourcing (take-out food)
- forced quality time (dedication to family)
Why is Taylorization become incorporated into the Americo employee's family lives?
- More hours at work leaves less time for home life and care which creates time-intense family life.
- Results in a "third shift" to repair damages of Taylorization when family life is already pressed for time.
What is the "mommy tax"?
the gap in wages between childless women and women with children and families
Why no "daddy tax"?
we do not see wage gaps between fathers and childless men
According to Mason and Eckman, what consequences does motherhood have for the careers they studied and why?
- most grad programs not family-friendly
- Between 30-40 is when women are concerned about starting a family
- Time intensive careers+intensive mothering= overbearing pressure
What is "gender segregation" and how does it help explain the pay gap?
- is one of two explanations for pay gap
- explains that men and women usually have different jobs.
- These jobs are socialized and employers have an effect by making personal preferences when hiring.
What are "motherhood penalties" and how do they help explain the pay gap? Be able to name and discuss some.
- deals with mother and not father labor force participation when she becomes a mother and there is discrimination in the workforce
- Example: Mothers may be judged as not being as dedicated to work due to family obligations as compared to motherless women
What is the "pipeline problem"?
- Problem: Women and moms are found to be leaking out at some point disadvantaging them from reaching top-tier career positions in their chosen field.
- These women end up in second-tier jobs that do not have the prestige, pay, benefits or institutional power that is available to top-tier positions.
- This is consequential at the institutional level where decisions are being made that can affect women.
What are the stages of the career "pipeline" described by Mason and Eckman?
The pipeline starts at training that leads to a specific career path and then there are different levels within a career.
What is the "generation gap" Zhou describes?
Chinese parents and children have values and goals that are oriented differently from each other. The cultural context of the Chinese parents are different from the American parents which develops a discrepancy of values.
Compare/contrast the values of Chinese Immigrants and their American Children - Parent Values
- Parent Values
- Filial piety & obedience to parents (children are submissive to parents expectations that leads to child to suppress their interests and parents have the right to do this)
- Individual actions bring status/dishonor to family (child's behavior and actions is reflective of the entire family)
- Social mobility through academic success (children expected to choose careers/jobs that pay well, are stable, have prestige (particularly STEM)
Compare/contrast the values of Chinese Immigrants and their American Children - Children
- want fun and independence that is not part of the parents' value system
- Frustrated by parents not allowing them to develop a separate identity and are strict around freedom
- Parents are never satisfied with the work they do (work harder than non-Chinese friends)
- Not allowed to spend money on things their peers are engaged in
- Dating is disapproving because it takes away from studying and can cause problems
Name and discuss some social structural factors that matter for how families experience this generation gap. ***need to edit***
- There is much diversity in the Chinese immigrant community in terms of social class, resources and where people are living and access to community resources oriented for children.
- If parents immigrated and experienced a downward mobility, if both have to work, how does this affect their expectations on their children?
- Community resources for children: Plays a role in the culture clash families experience. The Chinese businesses help provide places for kids to go to: tutoring centers, sports & enrichment activities.
Why does the neighborhood context matter?***questionable answer***
- Who has access to resources all depends on where you live.
- Suburban areas & Ethnoburbs: There are less resources within the community in these areas because these families are often highly educated, and have higher incomes and more savings when they arrive.
- Chinatowns: linked to providing various supports and resources to new immigrants and their families.
What is the role of neighborhood institutions like weekend Chinese school and after-school programs?
- These are places where there is a peer community that can relate to similar issues they are having with their parents and can express themselves, which they cannot do at home.
- Provides info about higher education and support for applying and navigating college.
- Provides educational support that leads to increased educational success for children from families that do not have many resources.
Explain the theme from the "Religion and Relationships" article: "Islam is a way of life".
- This is a guide for how to do things in your family and relationships and not necessarily needing other sources.
- The idea of using this should eliminate conflict with how most decisions are made on a daily basis at home. Such as, who does what, who is responsible for certain things.
Explain the theme from the "Religion and Relationships" article: "Islam as a unifying force".
- The idea of bringing everyone together through the practice of religion and prayer and fasting.
- ~Through prayer they can disconnect from all external forces and pressures and are able to reinforce their family unit.
How did the study respondents view Islam in terms of women's rights and equality?
- There is a focus on different rights and responsibilities for men and women leading to different roles in the family.
- They feel the construct of equality that is imposed on them paints their religion they don't agree with.
- Women experience freedom when wearing hijab and conservative dress as liberating them from traditional beauty standards and receive respect from men.
- They are not sexually objectified by men.
- Women are allowed to work but they had to be able to keep up with their family responsibilities while working.