Chapter 1 Biol 3703

  1. Immunology
    The study of all aspects of host defense against infection and of adverse consequences of immune responses.
  2. Immune Response (IR)
    The response made by the host to defend itself against a pathogen.
  3. 2 types of immune responses:
    • 1)Innate/non-specific immunity
    • 2)Specific/adaptive/acquired
  4. Innate Immunity has what 4 characteristics?
    1)Born with 2)Non-specific 3)Acts Immediately 4)Does not improve after exposure to the pathogen
  5. What are 4 characteristics of adaptive immune response?
    • 1)Requires prior exposure or time to develop
    • 2)Specific for one pathogen or molecule; has specific antigen receptors that activate lymphocytes
    • 3)More versatile response to a large number of different organisms
    • 4)Life long immunity to a specific agent
  6. Cytokines
    Secreted proteins that regulate other cells (Ex: monokine, lymphokine, interleukins)
  7. Antigen
    Any molecule that stimulates an IR or bind to the products of an IR.
  8. Lysozyme
    Enzyme that digest the cell wall of bacteria.
  9. Normal flora
    Microorganisms that grow in/on the body w/o causing harm.
  10. Phagocytes
    WBC's that ingest large particles
  11. Inflammation
    Significant to innate defense w/ signs of heat, redness, swelling, pain
  12. What are the 3 types of innate defenses?
    Mechanical, Chemical, Microbiological
  13. Inflammatory Cytokines causes what 4 things to happen?
    • 1)Activate endothelium
    • 2)Activate WBC's
    • 3)Fever
    • 4)Acute phase proteins
  14. What are the 5 places of in/on the body defenses?
    • Skin
    • GI tract
    • Respiratory tract
    • Urogenital tract
    • Eyes
  15. Mechanical/Skin
    Flow of fluid, perspiration, sloughing off of skin
  16. Mechanical/GI tract
    Flow of fluid, mucus, food, and saliva
  17. Mechanical/Resp. tract
    Flow of fluid and mucus, e.g., by cilia air flow
  18. Mechanical/Urogenital tract
    Flow of cluid, urin, mucus, sperm
  19. Mechanical/Eyes
    Flow of fluid, tears
  20. Chemical/Skin
    Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acid, lysozyme)
  21. Chemical/GI tract
    Acidity, enzymes (proteases)
  22. Chemical/Resp. tract
    Lysozyme in nasal secrections
  23. Chemical/Eyes
    Lysozyme in tears
  24. Microbiological/Skin
    Normal flora of the skin
  25. Microbiological/GI tract
    Normal flora of the GI tract
  26. Microbiological/Resp. tract
    Normal flora of the respiratory tract
  27. Microbiological/Urogenital tract
    Normal flora of the urogenital tract
  28. Microbiological/Eyes
    Normal flora of the eyes
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Chapter 1 Biol 3703
Chapter 1