Anatomy and Histology Final

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  1. How many line angles are on an anterior tooth?
  2. The mandibular lateral erupts into the oral cavity at approximately what age?
    7-8 years
  3. The maxillary canine erupts into the oral cavity at approximately what age?
    11-12 years
  4. On which tooth surface could a mamelon be found?
  5. Which tooth has a cusp tip more centrally located on the incisal edge?
    Maxillary canine
  6. There are how many point angles on a posterior tooth?
  7. Which tooth has the more rounded incisal edge when viewed from the incisal?
    Mandibular lateral
  8. The maxillary central erupts into the oral cavity at approximately what age?
    7-8 years
  9. Which tooth has a greater curvature on the distal surface when viewed from the facial?
    Maxillary lateral
  10. Which tooth is the most symmetrical when viewed from the facial?
    Mandibular central
  11. The maxillary premolars are wider in which direction?
    Facial to lingual
  12. Which of the premolars often has a varied occlusal configuration or pattern?
    Permanent second premolar
  13. The lingual cusps of maxillary premolars lean...
    towards the mesial
  14. Which pattern is most commonly found on a mandibular second premolar?
    "Y" pattern
  15. The mandibular premolars occlusally are wider in which direction?
    wider from mesial to distal.
  16. Which tooth has a lingual cusp that is shorter than the lingual cusps on all the other premolars?
    Mandibular first premolar
  17. Which tooth has a relatively deep concavity on the mesial surface, that is occlusal to the cervical line?
    Maxillary first premolar
  18. Which teeth may have more than one lingual cusp?
    Mandibular second premolars (#20 and #29)
  19. The cusp of Carabelli is located on which surface?
  20. The cusp of Carabelli is also called a cusp on a cusp - T or F
  21. The distofacial root is the largest root on a three-rooted molar - T or F
  22. The space between the roots of molars becomes larger the more posterior the tooth is positioned in the dental arch - T or F
  23. Mandibular second molars erupt at what age?
    11-13 years
  24. From the occlusal perspective, are maxillary molars wider in the facial/lingual dimension or mesial/distal dimension?
  25. How many lobes do mandibular second molars develop from?
  26. How many roots do mandibular molars have?
  27. What direction do mandibular molar roots lay?
    Mesial and distal
  28. The maxillary first molar erupts at what age?
    6-7 years
  29. The maxillary first molar has what distinct characteristics that are prominent features?
    • Cusp of Carabelli
    • Distolingual groove
  30. Maxillary second molars erupt at approximately what age?
    12-13 years
  31. The mandibular first molar has how many cusps?
  32. In general, each tooth in a dental arch occludes with 2 teeth in the opposing arch with the exception of....
    • Maxillary third molars
    • Mandibular central incisors
  33. The fitting together of cusps during chewing action is called
  34. The key to classification of dental occlusion for the maxillary first molar is...
    The relationship of the mesial buccal cusp of the maxillary first molar to the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar.
  35. An end-to-end bite is described as...
    No vertical overlap of the maxillary anterior teeth.
  36. When the lingual cusps of posterior mandibular teeth contact the maxillary occlusal surfaces, the condition is called...
  37. How is overbite determined?
    Measuring in mm how far the maxillary anterior teeth extend beyond the incisal edge of their mandibular counterparts
  38. In the "Curve of Spee" the following exists:
    • Maxillary arch is convex
    • Mandibular arch is concave
  39. How is overbite defined?
    Horizontal overlap
  40. Overjet is vertical overlap - T or F
  41. What is Angle's Classification of occlusion when the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar is posterior or distal to it's mandibular counterpart?
    Class III
  42. The V-shaped space extending labially/buccally, incisally/occlusally, lingually, or from the contact area of two adjacent teeth is known as what?
  43. Proper contact of each tooth with adjacent teeth is important because of this.
    It stabilizes the dental arches and gives protection to the gingival papillae
  44. Which teeth have a contact within the middle third?
    • Maxillary canine
    • Maxillary first and second premolars
    • Maxillary first and second molars
    • Mandibular first and second premolars
    • Mandibular first and second molars
  45. What is the result of attrition (wearing) of the contact areas?
    Slight reduction in the size of adjacent embrasures.
  46. On which proximal surface of the maxillary first premolar is there a concavity cervical to the contact area?
  47. What is the function of the contact between 2 adjacent teeth?
    • Aid in mastication by maintaining proper relationships with opposing teeth
    • Protect the interdental papillae
    • Prevent drifting of the teeth
    • Prevent food impaction
  48. Which molar and premolar surfaces do not have contacts within the middle third?
    • Mesial, maxillary second premolar
    • Distal, mandibular first premolar
    • Mesial, mandibular second premolar
  49. By protecting supporting structures from traumatic forces, which area transmits forces to adjacent teeth?
    Proximal contacts
  50. What is the area just apical to the contacts of 2 adjacent teeth called?
    Interproximal area or space
  51. When normally developed teeth do not make contact with their proximal surfaces, this is known as what?
  52. What happens to proximal contact areas as teeth age?
    They become larger
  53. Where is the contact area on the mesial surface of the maxillary permanent central incisor located?
    Incisal third
  54. What is a general depression around a pit called?
  55. How many cusps does a maxillary first molar have?
  56. How many ridges are present on a cusp?
  57. What is another name for secondary grooves?
    Supplemental grooves
  58. How many distal marginal ridges are on the mandibular first molar?
  59. The oblique ridge is a characteristic of which teeth?
    Maxillary molars
  60. A ridge that connects a facial and lingual cusp on a proximal surface is called what?
  61. What did primary grooves develop from?
    The fusion of lobes
  62. When the triangular ridge of a facial cusp meets the triangular ridge of a lingual cusp what is formed?
    Transverse ridge
  63. How does the occlusal pattern of a mandibular first molar differ from the pattern of a mandibular second molar?
    The number of cusps
  64. Which teeth have a prominent cemento-enamel junction which may require a more lingual approach when using a "feeling" instrument?
    Maxillary centrals
  65. Which tooth has the longest root in the maxillary arch?
    Maxillary canine
  66. Which teeth have deep longitudinal grooves on the mesial and distal often contributing to concave root surfaces?
    Maxillary laterals
  67. Which anterior teeth MAY have a bifurcated root?
    Mandibular canine
  68. Where does the distal furaction most often occur on maxillary molars?
    5 mm from the CEJ
  69. When the maxillary molar has a variation with an extra canal, which root will the extra canal be found in?
    Mesial root
  70. Where is the concavity in the cervical area of the root surfaces of maxillary and mandibular canines?
    Distal surface
  71. Which root is most likely to be broken during extraction on the maxillary first premolar?
    Lingual root
  72. On the facial surface of the maxillary central, the cervical portion of the root is what shape?
    Broad and flat
  73. Which incisal edge is shortest on the primary mandibular canine?
    Mesioincisal edge
  74. Is the comparative ratio of root length to crown length greater in permanent or primary dentition?
    Primary dentition
  75. For the crowns of deciduous maxillary central incisors, is the inciso-cervical measurement greater or the mesiodistal measurement?
  76. How do deciduous molars differ from permanent molars?
    Deciduous molars roots have more flare.
  77. How many roots are present on a deciduous maxillary second molar?
    The same as are present on permanent maxillary first and second molars and deciduous maxillary first molars, 3.
  78. The deciduous mandibular first molar has the same number of roots as which permanent tooth?
    The permanent mandibular first molar.
  79. Are the crowns of anterior teeth wider and broader in deciduous dentition or permanent dentition?
    Deciduous dentition
  80. How many cusps do the crowns of maxillary second primary molars have?
  81. Which teeth replace deciduous molars?
    Permanent premolars
  82. The cusp tip on the primary maxillary canine divides the incisal edge into the mesioincisal and distoincisal; which dimension is longer?
    Mesioincisal edge
  83. Do all deciduous first molars resemble their permanent counterparts?
  84. Which of the following statements is NOT true for individual deciduous teeth?
    - Teeth are more bulbous or balloon-like
    - Teeth have a greater ration of root length to crown length
    - Teeth have thinner enamel than permanent teeth
    - proportionate to tooth size, teeth have a smaller pulp cavity than permanent teeth
    Proportionate to tooth size, teeth have a smaller pulp cavity than permanent teeth
  85. What functions should deciduous teeth perform?
    • Acting as space maintainers for succedanous teeth
    • Mastication of food
    • Aiding in phonetics
    • Contributing to the pleasing appearance of the child
  86. How many roots are present on the deciduous maxillary first molar?
  87. The process by which the cells of the epiblast layer cells migrate toward the hypoblast layer forming the mesenchyme is known as what?
  88. The buccopharyngeal membrane ruptures during which week?
    Fourth week
  89. At the fifth week of embryonic development, the premaxilla is known as what?
    The intermaxillary segment
  90. What is the embryonic process or stage in which cells grown known as?
  91. What is the small evagination of stomodeal ectoderm at the roof of the primitive mouth known as?
    Rathke's pouch
  92. The earliest sign of the developing face appears in which week?
    Fourth week
  93. From which pouch does the tympanic membrane form?
    Pharyngeal pouch I
  94. What is another name for the primitive mouth?
  95. Connective tissue is derived from which germ layer?
  96. Fusion of the upper lip occurs during which week?
    Sixth week
  97. From which pouch does the palatine tonsils form?
    Pharyngeal pouch II
  98. Projections of epithelium into the underlying connective tissue is called what?
    Rete pegs
  99. Attached gingiva is an example of what?
    Masticatory mucosa
  100. The stratum granulosum contains flattened cells with granules believed to function in the process of keratinization - T or F
  101. How is epithelium classified?
    • Shape of the cell
    • Number of cell layers
  102. Where is masticatory mucosa found?
    • Hard palate
    • Attached gingiva
    • Portions of the dorsum of the tongue
  103. Oral mucosal epithelium and epidermis of the skin are examples of what kind of tissue?
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  104. The tough, keratinized outer layer of the oral epithelium is called what?
    Stratum corneum
  105. Where is melanin most clinically visible?
    • Attached gingiva
    • Lips
    • Buccal mucosa
  106. Where is lining mucosa found?
    • Labial and buccal mucosa (lips)
    • Lips - vermillion zone
    • Alveolar mucosa
    • Floor of the mouth
    • Ventral surface of the tongue
    • Soft palate
  107. Where is specialized mucosa found?
    Portions of the dorsal and lateral surface of the tongue
  108. What is the layer of epithelium where cells reproduce called?
    Stratum basale
  109. What type of fiber is the main protection against occlusal stress?
  110. What is the most important function of the periodontal ligament?
  111. Which of the following contributes to the elasticity of periodontal ligament fibers?
  112. The parts of the periodontal ligament embedded in bone and cementum are called what?
    Sharpey's Fibers
  113. At what angle are the "mineralized fibers endings" embedded into the adjacent hard tissues?
    90-degree angle
  114. Which of the following fibers helps to maintain a proper relationship between teeth?
  115. Small clumps of epithelial cells amid the periodontal fibers are called?
    Rest of Malassez
  116. Which of the following fiber groups are NOT considered an alveolodental fiber group arrangement?

  117. Which two types of fibers resists the tooth from being pulled out of the socket?
    Apical and interradicular
  118. How long do we retain the ability to form osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and cementoblasts in healthy, non-stressed periodontal ligaments?
    All our lives
  119. Which two types of fibers resist horizontal pressures on the tooth?
    Alveolar and horizontal
  120. Definition of stellate reticulum
    Cells between IEE and the OEE, consist of star-shaped cells
  121. What are partially calcified vertical sheets of enamel matrix?
    Enamel lamellae
  122. What is the chemical formula for enamel?
  123. The dental sac forms from the mesoderm layer and produces what?
    • Cementum
    • Periodontal ligament
  124. Which germ layer produces enamel?
  125. During the late bell stage, the enamel organ develops ameloblasts, which in turn make what?
  126. Nonsuccedaneous teeth include the premolars - T or F
  127. Which structure manufactures odontoblasts?
    Dental papilla
  128. Which is NOT part of the Nasmyth's membrane?

    Reduced enamel epithelium
    Odontoblastic layer
    Primary enamel cuticle
    Secondary enamel cuticle
    Odontoblastic layer
  129. What is the composition of tooth enamel?
    • 96% inorganic
    • 1% organic
    • 3% water
  130. What are lines of Retzius?
    Incremental line in preparation of mature enamel
  131. When does the dental lamina begin to form?
    6 weeks
  132. Reparative, reactive, and tertiary dentin form quickly in response to what?
    • Caries preparation
    • Attrition
    • Recession
  133. What sensation is received by the tooth pulp?
  134. What is true of the cells which make dentin?
    Capable of producing dentin throughout life
  135. What is the relationship between percentages of materials in a tooth tissue and its hardness relative to other tissues?
    Tissue with more inorganic material is harder
  136. What kind of cells make dentin?
  137. From which primitive germ layer is cementum produced?
  138. Dentin is derived from which embryonic tissue?
  139. What is true of the hardness of cementum?
    Not as hard as dentin
  140. What is NOT a possible relationship of cementum and enamel?
    Enamel overlaps cementum at the CEJ
  141. Which type of cell is more predominant in the pulp?
  142. What is true about sclerotic dentin?
    • A type of tertiary dentin
    • Dentinal tubules become vacant and are filled with a substance similar to peritubular dentin
    • Clinically, this dentin can appear dark, smooth and shiny
  143. What is true about dentin?
    • Sometimes called calcified connective tissue
    • Second hardest tissue in tooth formation
    • Forms over most of the tooth
  144. When is the pulp chamber the largest?
    Young tooth (6-12 years)
  145. What is the relationship of cementum to that of other tissues, in a normal tooth?
    • Outside of the root dentin
    • Covering the root surface
    • May sightly overlap enamel
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Anatomy and Histology Final
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