Zoonotic3- Tuleremia Anthrax

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  1. Bioterrorism agents that are easily spread person-to-person, leading to high death rates and potential for major public health impact; require special action for public health preparedness.
    category A
  2. Bioterrorism agents that are moderately easy to spread and result in moderate illness and low death rates; require specific enhancements of laboratory capacity and disease monitoring.
    Category B
  3. Bioterrorism agent that is easily available, easily produced and spread, and has the potential for high morbidity rates and major health impact.
    Category C
  4. What are some category A bioterrorism agents? (6)
    Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum toxin, Yersinia pestis, Variola major (smallpox), Francisella tularensis, Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Hantaviruses, Dengue, Ebola)
  5. Describe the Bacillus anthracis microbe. (5)
    aerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming, vegetative cell stage, and spore stage
  6. When do the Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells become spores?
    when nutrients are exhausted, a few hours outside the body
  7. What are the modes of transmission of Bacillus anthracis? (3)
    broken skin (most common for people), food-borne (most common for livestock), inhalation
  8. Person-to-person transmission of Bacillus anthracis is _______.
    very rare
  9. What are the forms of anthrax (disease) in people? (3)
    cutaneous (most common), intestinal, inhalation (most serious form)
  10. What are risk factors for contraction of Bacillus anthracis? (2)
    occupational/environmental settings, contact with infected animals/animal products
  11. Describe the pathogenesis of anthrax in animals.
    animals graze contaminated soil--> spores germinate and vegetative cells rapidly multiply
  12. What animals are most commonly infected with anthrax? (3)
    cattle, goats, sheep  (VERY rare in dogs and cats)
  13. What is the most common form of anthrax in animals? What are 4 clinical signs?
    peracute; death in <2hrs, hemorrhage from body orifices, incomplete rigor, bloat
  14. What are the forms of anthrax in animals? (3)
    peracute (most common), acute, subacute/chronic
  15. Describe acute anthrax as it occurs in animals. (7)
    clinical signs lasting ~48hrs, severe depression, febrile, abortions (cattle), edema (horses), colic and death (horses)
  16. In what animals does the subacute/chronic form of anthrax occur? (2)
    pigs and dogs
  17. Describe the subacute/chronic form of anthrax that occurs in animals. (4)
    [dogs and pigs] fever, lingual edema, ventral edema, death due to asphyxiation
  18. How do you treat anthrax? (3)
    oxytet, penicillin, or streptomycin
  19. Describe prevention of anthrax in animals. (2)
    vaccination of livestock, prophylaxis in exposed cats and dogs
  20. Describe prevention of anthrax in people. (4)
    control disease in livestock, vaccine for military, treat animal hides before importation, PPE
  21. Describe the Francisella tularensis microbe. (5)
    gram-negative, intracellular, persists in environment, highly infectious (low infectious dose), easily killed by heat/disinfectants
  22. What are the types of Francisella tularensis? (2)
    • Type A- more virulent
    • Type B- subclinical
  23. How is tularemia transmitted? (4)
    vector-borne (ticks, mosquitoes, flies), airborne, direct, ingestion
  24. What are vectors of tularemia? (3)
    ticks**, mosquitoes, flies
  25. Is there evidence of human-to-human transmission of tularemia?
  26. What are reservoirs of tularemia? (5)
    rabbits, aquatic rodents (beavers, etc), rats, squirrels, prarie dogs
  27. Describe tularemia in people. (6)
    ulceroglandular** (most common), glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, pneumonic, typhoidal
  28. Describe control and prevention of tularemia. (3)
    reduce vector exposure, reduce oral exposure (don't drink untreated water), reduce aerosol/contact exposure
  29. What are the reservoir and vector of tularemia?
    ticks are a reservoir and vector
  30. Describe disease caused in animals by tularemia. (2)
    clinical disease in domestic animals as accidental hosts, subclinical infections are common in dogs and cattle
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Zoonotic3- Tuleremia Anthrax
vetmed zoonotic3
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