3200 Pathology

  1. The nucleus
    • Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    • 1. The genetic info encoded in the nuclear DNA is transcribed into the nuclear RNA. The message is then transmitted by transfer RNA and messenger RNA into the cytoplasm to genetically produce specific proteins.
  2. What surrounds the nucleus?
    The cytoplasm
  3. Cytoplasm contains numerous _________
  4. Cytoplasm Ratio:
    The ratio of nucleus to the cytoplasm is higher in undifferentiated cells and is considered a marker for the identification of malignant cells.
  5. Differentiated cells
    Specialized cells such as kidney or liver cells
  6. Mitochondria are:
    Small bodies with double membranes that contain maternal DNA.
  7. Mitochondria produce:
    energy for the cells
  8. Ribosomes are:
    small granules composed of RNA and are associated with protein metabolism
  9. Ribosomes attach to:
    membranes forming RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum)
  10. SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)
    Is what?
    Associated with what?
    Are seen in what?
    • Meshwork of membranes with no ribosomes attached
    • Associated with catabolic or breakdown processes
    • Seen in liver cells
  11. Golgi Apparatus are:
    Clusters of tubules usually adjacent to the nucleus and secrete cell products
  12. Golgi Aparatus are especially prominent in:
    plasma cells where the immunoglobin is excreted
  13. Lysosomes are:
    membrane bound digestive cytoplasmic organnesl that contain enzymes to break down various materials.
  14. Cytoskeleton
    • A network of filaments and microtubules that support the cell, are associated with cell movement and intracellular transport. Also, form the spindle apparatus that allows cells to divide.
    • A number of cytotoxic drugs derived from plants break down or prevent their normal functions. An example is Taxol and Vincristine, both powerful anti-cancer drugs.
  15. Plasma membrane is composed of:
    protein, lipids and carbohydrates in a complex bilayer that communicates both with the outside and the internal membranes of the cell.
  16. Plasma membrane is maintained by:
    • active processes and damage to the membrane results in cell death.
    • The attack portion of the complement sequence can destroy the cell membrane
  17. Autocrine
    the communication of similar cells to each other. Example lymphocytes make cytokines that stimulate other lymphocytes to grow
  18. Paracrine
    a cell makes a substance which acts upon a specific cell to form a product
  19. Endocrine
    • A cell makes a product that acts upon many different kinds of cells
    • Example thyroid hormone acts upon many different cells
  20. Reversible Cell Injury
    Short periods of lack of oxygen and exposure to certain toxins produce cytological and biochemical changes that do no produce death of a cell. We see cellular swelling (hydropic) change as well as mitochondrial swelling. The cell contains mostly K and the extra cellular fluid contains Na. There is active energy to maintain this relationship. Orthopedic surgeons can block blood flow to an extremity for over one hour and still cause no harm when the extremity becomes re-infused with blood.
  21. Pyknosis
    marked by condensation of the chromatin
  22. Karyorrhexis
    characterized by fragmentation into smaller particles, colloaqually called nuclear dust
  23. Karyolysis
    involves dissolution of nuclear structure and lysis of chromatin by enzymes such as DNAase and RNAase
  24. Irreversible Cell Injury
    The cell dies, enzymes leak out and can be measured as in liver disease and heart ischemia. Nuclear changes can be visualized by looking at the nuclei. First, the chromatic condenses (pyknosis), Then the nucleus breaks apart (karyorrhexis) and then almost disappears (karyolysis).
  25. Hydropic
    Cellular sweeling as seen in Reversible Cell Injury
  26. Causes of cell injury
    • Hypoxia
    • Toxic injury
    • Microbial pathogens
    • Immunologica and inflammatory reactions when carried to the extreme
    • Genetic and metabolic abnormalities
  27. Hypoxia
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Can be caused by infection, substances that prevent oxygen from reaching tissue, such as CO and cyanide, lack of RBC among others.
    • Some times when there is reoxygenation after cell injury free radicals are generated that produces tissue and cellular damage.
  28. Toxic Injury
    • Causes Cell injury
    • Direct toxic effects on cells
    • Some agents act directly such as radiation and heavy metals
    • And others are toxic only after being metabolized by the organism.
  29. Microbial Pathogens
    • Causes of cell injury
    • this includes bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as products produced by these organisms
  30. Types of cell adaptations:
    • Atrophy
    • Hypertrophy
    • Metaplasia
    • Dysplasia
    • Neoplasia
  31. Atrophy
    • Decrease in size of cell and tissue or organ.
    • Some atrophy occurs with age.
    • Some with disuse as in nerve and muscle injury,
    • and some with disease processes
  32. Hypertrophy
    is an enlargement of a cell or organ, which can lead to the organ being bigger while hyperplasia is an increase in numbers of cells with an enlargement of an organ
  33. Metaplasia
    change of one cell type to another, usually driven by inflammation
  34. Dysplasia
    disordered growth with cells showing some features of Neoplasia
  35. Neoplasia
    disordered growth with the ability to invade outside its Normal Boundaries and have cytological and biological features that we identify as cancer
  36. Necrosis
    The morphologic change in tissue caused by cell death
  37. Necrosis divided into:
    • 1. Coagulation – remnants of shadows of cells
    • 2. Liquifactive necrosis – seen in brain tissue
    • 3. Caseous necrosis – a chessy soft material seen in granuloma formation and often associated with TB
    • 4. Fat necrosis – seen in pancreatitis where the pancreatic enzyme breaks down abdominal fat. Lipase can be measured in the blood
  38. Apoptosis
    An active process activated by genetic control within a single cell. A highly regulated process. Can be a factor in tumor cells that lack the ability to destroy themselves and thus invade in areas they do not belong. Isoflavinoids are a class of compound found in fresh rapidly growing foods that are believed to cause apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Bean sprouts are a good source of isoflavinoids.
  39. Definition of Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death that occurs normally in developing adult tissues but that can also be induced by various drugs and viruses
Card Set
3200 Pathology
Terms and prinicples found from Ch. 1 notes