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List some of the causes of narcolepsy in horses
Low levels of neurotransmitters in the CNS required for control of sleep
Low levels of hypocretin ligands due to loss of neutrons involved in the tuberomammillary nucleus which is necessary for encouraging a wakeful state
Persistent cataplectic state (foals)
Infection - encephalitis
How can you manage equine narcolepsy?
Environment changes for safety
Imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant)
Atropine sulphate (a muscarinic blocker)
What are the side effects of imipramine and atropine sulphate?
They can induce colic
List some of the causes of self mutilation in horses
Aggression in stallions
Behavioural response to pain
Frustration turned in upon self
How can you manage self mutilation?
Treat the underlying pain problem
Management change for stallions
Enrich environment for stereotypes
Sedation (ACP and detomidine) - treats the symptoms not the cause
Euthanasia if severe and/or untreatable
What is the problem with tricyclic antidepressants?
They are expensive
List some of the causes of wind sucking in horses
Small amount of time at pasture
Learned behaviour from other horses in same stable yard
Gastrointestinal abnormalities (gastric ulcers)
Diet - too much concentrates vs forage
How can you manage wind sucking?
Increase turnout and decrease concentrates
Keep horses with stereotypes separate
Surgery - ventral neck muscles
Omeprazole for gastric ulcers, if found on endoscopy
Give examples of types of aversion therapy for wind sucking
Electric shock fencing
Deterrents on surfaces e.g. cover wood with metal
How effective is a cribbing collar in most cases?
Not very, most horses adapt to this over time
List some causes of head shaking in horses
Trauma to the head
Guttural pouch mycosis
Dental problems - abscesses
Middle ear problems, mites
Neurological damage - trigeminal neuralgia
How can you manage head shaking in horses?
Decrease exposure to antigens
LA infused around trigeminal and infraorbital nerves to diagnose neurological damage
Cyproheptadine - antihistaminic and antiserotogenic agent tried in photosensitive cases
Carbamazepine - Na+ channel blocker
Seasonal/environmental i.e. keep horses in
Sclerosis of the posterior ethmoidal branch of the trigeminal nerve
Visor - photic
Euthanasia if not treatable
True or false: carbamazepine is licensed in horses?
False - it is used to treat epileptic seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia in humans. Used off license in horses.
How does a nose net work?
It provides physical stimulus of cranial nerves and so distracts the horse from the cause of head shaking