Equine PBL

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  1. List some of the causes of narcolepsy in horses
    • Low levels of neurotransmitters in the CNS required for control of sleep
    • Low levels of hypocretin ligands due to loss of neutrons involved in the tuberomammillary nucleus which is necessary for encouraging a wakeful state
    • Persistent cataplectic state (foals)
    • Breed predispositions 
    • Genetic
    • Neoplasia
    • Head injury/trauma
    • Infection - encephalitis
    • Idiopathic
    • Triggers
  2. How can you manage equine narcolepsy?
    • Environment changes for safety
    • Remove triggers 
    • Imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant)
    • Atropine sulphate (a muscarinic blocker)
    • Tyrosine
  3. What are the side effects of imipramine and atropine sulphate?
    They can induce colic
  4. List some of the causes of self mutilation in horses
    • Aggression in stallions
    • Behavioural response to pain
    • Frustration turned in upon self
    • Stereotypy/boredom
    • Limb pain
    • Myopathy
    • Neoplasia
  5. How can you manage self mutilation?
    • Treat the underlying pain problem
    • Management change for stallions
    • Enrich environment for stereotypes
    • Positive punishment
    • Castration
    • Sedation (ACP and detomidine) - treats the symptoms not the cause
    • Tricyclic antidepressants
    • Euthanasia if severe and/or untreatable
  6. What is the problem with tricyclic antidepressants?
    They are expensive
  7. List some of the causes of wind sucking in horses
    • Abrupt weaning
    • Boredom/stress
    • Small amount of time at pasture
    • Learned behaviour from other horses in same stable yard
    • Gastrointestinal abnormalities (gastric ulcers)
    • Diet - too much concentrates vs forage
  8. How can you manage wind sucking?
    • Increase turnout and decrease concentrates
    • Relieve boredom
    • Keep horses with stereotypes separate
    • Aversion therapy
    • Cribbing collar
    • Surgery - ventral neck muscles
    • Omeprazole for gastric ulcers, if found on endoscopy
  9. Give examples of types of aversion therapy for wind sucking
    • Electric shock fencing
    • Deterrents on surfaces e.g. cover wood with metal
  10. How effective is a cribbing collar in most cases?
    Not very, most horses adapt to this over time
  11. List some causes of head shaking in horses
    • Bites
    • Allergic rhinitis
    • Trauma to the head
    • Photic
    • Guttural pouch mycosis
    • Dental problems - abscesses
    • Middle ear problems, mites
    • Neurological damage - trigeminal neuralgia
  12. How can you manage head shaking in horses?
    • Decrease exposure to antigens
    • LA infused around trigeminal and infraorbital nerves to diagnose neurological damage
    • Cyproheptadine - antihistaminic and antiserotogenic agent tried in photosensitive cases
    • Carbamazepine - Na+ channel blocker
    • Seasonal/environmental i.e. keep horses in
    • Sclerosis of the posterior ethmoidal branch of the trigeminal nerve
    • Visor - photic
    • Nose net
    • Euthanasia if not treatable
  13. True or false: carbamazepine is licensed in horses?
    False - it is used to treat epileptic seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia in humans.  Used off license in horses.
  14. How does a nose net work?
    It provides physical stimulus of cranial nerves and so distracts the horse from the cause of head shaking
Card Set
Equine PBL
Module 13
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