Organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments.
A group of premises lead to a conclusion
A sentence that is either true or false. Typically a declarative sentence or a sentence component that could stand as a declarative sentence.
The 2 possible truth values of a statement are: Truth and Falsity
The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence.
The statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply.
The statement that is claimed to follow from the premises.
- We may infer
- We may conclude
- It must be that
- For this reason
- Entails that
- It follows that
- Implies that
- As a result
- As indicated by
- In that
- May be inferred from
- Given that
- Seeing that
- For the reason that
- Inasmuch as
- Owing to
The reasoning process expressed by an argument (narrow sense)
Inference - argument (broad sense)
The meaning or information content of a statement. (Narrow sense)
Proposition - statement (Broad sense)
Kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument.
Kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt.
A claim that something is true; a claim that evidence or reasons are being presented.
The claim that the passage expresses a certain kind of reasoning process - that something supports or implies something or that something follows from something.
- Explicit - argument (thus, since, because)
- Implicit - no indicator words
Form of expression that is intended to put someone on guard against a dangerous or detrimental situation.
Piece of advice
Form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision or course of conduct.
Statement of belief (Opinion)
An expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something.
Loosely Associated Statements
Lack a claim that one of them is proved by the others.
A group of statements that convey information about some topic or event.
A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.
An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done.
Arguments from example
An argument that purports to prove something by giving one or more examples of it.
An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
Statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained.
The statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining.
An "if...then..." statement
The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word "if"
The component of a conditional statement following the word "then"
The condition represented by the antecedent in a conditional statement.
The condition represented by the consequent in a conditional statement.
An argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusions to be false given that the premises are true.
An argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given the premises are true.
Argument based on mathematics
An argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.
Argument from definition
An argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion.
A syllogism (an argument consisting of exactly 2 premises and 1 conclusion) in which each statement begins with one of the words "all", "no", or "some".
Syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
Syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one of its premises.
(an "either...or..." statement)
An argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future.
Argument from analogy
An argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or similarity, between 2 things or states of affairs.
An argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group.
Argument from authority
An argument that concludes something is true because a presumed expert or witness has said that it is.
Argument based on signs
An argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes.
An argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or conversely from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause.
One that makes a claim about one or more particular members of a class.
Makes a claim about all the members of a class.
Valid Deductive Argument
An argument in which it's impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Invalid Deductive Argument
A deductive argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
A deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises.
A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.
Strong Inductive Argument
An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true.
Weak Inductive Argument
An argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to.
An inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises
An inductive argument that's weak, has 1 or more false premises, or both
An arrangement of words and letters such that the uniform substitution of terms or statements in place of the letters results in an argument.
An argument or statement that has the same form as a given argument form or statement form.
A method for providing invalidity - consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion.
Truth or Falsity of a statement is found in the mind or brain.
Can't be otherwise.
(Either necessarily true or necessarily false)
A necessarily true statement.
Self - contradiction
A necessarily false statement.
The grammatical subject is contained in the grammatical predicate.
Truth or falsity of a statement is found in the world.
The truth or falsity of a statement depends on the conditions that exist in the world.
The grammatical subject is not contained in the grammatical predicate .
Any statement that does not contain a contradiction is logically possible