Micro Quiz 2

  1. Jospeh Lister
    Pioneered use of carbolic acid spray in the OR
  2. Ignaz Semmelweis
    Pioneered hand washing techniques
  3. Pasteurization
    Reduction of food spoilage organisms by heating
  4. Anthrax
    • Koch studied antrax
    • Inhaled anthrax affects the lungs
    • Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis
  5. Koch's Postulates
    • A process to determine the etiology (cause) of an infectious disease.
    • 1. The suspected pathogen must be found in all cases of the disease, but not in healthy individuals
    • 2. The suspected pathogen must be isolated from a diseased host and grown in pure culture
    • 3. The pure culture must produce the same symptoms when inoculated into a healthy host
    • 4. The same pathogen must be isolated from the secondary host
  6. Exceptions to Koch's Postulates
    • 1. Some pathogens cannot be grown in pure culture
    • 2. Many pathogens are species-specific: there may be no animal models for a human disease
    • 3. Some pathogens can persist
    • in “carriers” who have no symptoms
    • 4. Some microorganisms can cause more than one disease
    • 5. Some diseases (sets of symptoms) have more than one cause
  7. Medical Microbiology
    • 1. Identify the causative agent (Koch’s Postulates)
    • 2. Cure or prevent the disease
  8. Early Vaccination
    • Lady Mary Montagu
    • “inoculation parties”
    • “customers” would have a scratch made on a limb
    • Pus from the victim of a mild attack of smallpox would be smeared on open vein of customer
    • Worked most of the time
  9. Edward Jenner
    • Jenner 1798. Cowpox pustule material protects humans from small pox
    • Vaccination after vacca which means cow.
  10. Pasteur with Vaccination
    • Rabies vaccination
    • Basic idea: pre-exposure to weakened pathogen later protects from the active pathogen.
  11. Progression of viruses
    • ~1930 The name viruses (poison) coined
    • ~1940 Electron microscope developed and viruses observed for the first time
    • ~1950 Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens – must be grown in live organisms, or in tissue culture
    • ~1960 antibodies discovered – specific antibodies can be used to identify specific viruses
    • ~1970s onwards. Molecular techniques –
    • DNA, RNA or protein analysis- used to detect presence of viruses
  12. Modification of Koch’s Postulates for use with viruses
    • Postulate 1:
    • Viral particles, viral proteins, viral nucleic acids or antibodies specific to the virus are present in infected individuals and not present in uninfected individuals
    • Postulate 2:
    • Viruses can be grown in tissue culture, or observed in infected tissues under the EM
    • Postulate 3:
    • Cell-free filtrates of infected material produce disease in animal models (if available) or in tissue culture
    • Postulate 4:
    • Viral particles from second host look the same, and have the same molecular characteristics as the original isolate.
  13. Virus Causation and Cure
    • If a certain virus is consistently associated with a certain disease AND
    • Methods used to prevent transmission of that virus reduce incidence of the disease OR
    • A vaccine prepared using the virus prevents the disease
    • Then the virus is considered to be the causative agent
  14. Atoms
    • Are the smallest unit of matter
    • Nucleus contains:
    • Protons (1+) charge. Number of protons determines which atom
    • Neutrons (no charge) add weight to nucleus
    • Electrons (-1) charge orbit the nucleus; only part involved in chemical reactions
  15. Oribitals
    When atoms orbitals are not filled, they are reactive
  16. Chemical Bonds
    • Atoms can fill their orbitals by sharing electrons with another atom
    • A shared electron pair is called a covalent bond
    • When 2 or more atoms are bonded together, a molecule is created
  17. Ionic Bonds
    Electrons are given away and taken away.
  18. Nonpolar Bonds
    • Electrons are shared equally
    • "Not" pulling
  19. Polar Bonds
    • Unequal sharing of electrons
    • "Pulling"
  20. Properties of Water
    • Cohesion: water sticks to itself
    • Adhesion: water sticks to other polar substances "adhesive"
    • Solvent: Water is a good solvent for polar substances. Water will not dissolve in nonpolar substances. There are no charges to attract water
    • High Specific Heat
    • Water Density-causes lattice formation. Expands as a solid.
  21. Carbon-Based Life Forms
    • Cells are roughly 70% water
    • Dry weight of cell is mainly Carbon
    • Carbon is NOT a major constituent of the earth
    • It is life’s building block because of its unique structure
    • C can make up to 4 highly stable covalent bonds
    • C can make single, double, or triple bonds
    • C can make long stable chains with itself
    • C also binds to life’s other elements (H, O, N, S, Phosphate)
  22. Carbon bonds to other life elements
    • These bonds are polar
    • These bonds are not as stable as C-C or C-H bonds
    • These bonds are thus reactive
    • Life is not inert!
  23. Carbon Compounds
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nuclei Acids
  24. Carbohydrates
    • Building block is glucose (sugar)
    • Formed by dehydration reactions
    • Two together create disaccharides
  25. Polysaccharides
    • Long chains of sugars are called polysaccharides
    • Function as energy storage or structure
    • Examples include:
    • Starchstorage
    • Chitinstructure
  26. Lipids
    • Building block is often glycerol
    • To which Fatty Acid chains are attached
    • Formed by dehydration synthesis
    • Lipids are important as:
    • Energy storage:
    • Insulation:
    • Thermal
    • Electrical
    • Building blocks of membranes
    • Building block of steroids
    • Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
  27. Lipid Structure
    • Many lipids usually found as Fatty Acids (16-18 Cs)
    • Lipids are either saturated or unsaturated
    • Saturated refers to having as many Hs bonded to the Cs as possible
    • Unsaturated have double bonds between Cs
  28. Phospholipid
    • Phospholipids
    • 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate head
    • Amphipathic
    • Building block of membranes
    • Phospholipids form bilayers
    • Degree of unsaturation determines membrane fluidity
  29. Proteins
    • Anything that happens in the cell is due to protein
    • Proteins function:
    • Structure
    • Transport
    • Protection/Defense
    • Control/regulation
    • Catalysis
    • Movement
    • Storage
    • Amino Acid Building Block
  30. Amino Acids
    • 20 different amino acids
    • Linked by Peptide bonds which are very strong
  31. Levels of Protein Structure
    • Primary Structure: “spelling” ; actual amino acids present, the polypeptide chain
    • Secondary structure: local folding pattern; α helix, β sheet, turns
    • Tertiary structure: overall 3D fold; usually a mixture of secondary structure
    • Quaternary structure: 2 or more protein subunits come together to make one protein
    • Primary Structure determines Tertiary Structure
Card Set
Micro Quiz 2
Svinth Class