1. Layer Cake Model of culture
    • Leslie White
    • ideological
    • social and political organization
    • technology and economy
    • –Technology: influences Social & Ideological aspects
  2. Second law of thermodynamics:
    • Leslie White
    • the idea that the universe is running down thereby increasing disorder
  3. Sui Generis:
    • Leslie White
    • refers to culture as a system of its own kind
  4. Thermodynamic Law
    • Leslie White
    • culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased. Energy x Technology equals cultural product.
  5. Thermodynamics
    • Leslie White
    • the study of the conversion of forms of energy in the universe
  6. Culture ecology
    • Julian Steward
    • Relationship between culture & environment
  7. Band
    • Julian Steward
    • Defined 3 types of bands patrilineal, matrilineal, and composite
    • he distinguished this from Service’s tribe, chiefdom, and state.
  8. Adaptation
    • Julian Steward
    • this concept became the rubric of culture ecology
  9. Multilinear Evolution
    • Julian Steward
    • societies had multiple lines of development–But, bound by regularities
  10. Parallel evolution
    • Julian Steward
    • asks “Why are there similar adaptations in similar environments?”
  11. Culture core
    • Julian Steward
    • Features related to subsistence & economics
    • Technology and economy
    • Social organzation
    • ideology
    • changes in one layer, affects changes in others
  12. socioeconomic 3 age system
    • Gordon Childe
    • Paleolithic, neolithic, urban revolution
    • similar to Morgan
  13. General Social-economic Categories
    • Elman Service
    • Band
    • tribe
    • Cheifdom
    • State
  14. economic & political categories of social stratification
    • Morton Fried
    • egalitarian
    • ranked
    • stratified
    • state
    • organization of power, prestige, and position
  15. Cultural subsystems
    • Marvin Harris
    • infrastructure - “mode of production,” and
    • the “mode of reproduction.” 
    • structure - organizational aspects of culture such as domestic and kinship systems and political economy
    • superstructure - ideological and symbolic aspects of society such as religion
  16. Behavioural Domain
    Marvin Harris What people do
  17. Mental Domain
    • Marvin Harris
    • What people think
  18. Emic Behavioural Domain
    • Marvin Harris
    • What people think about their own behavior
  19. Emic Mental Domain
    • Marvin Harris
    • What people think about their own thoughts
  20. Structure of the conjuncture
    • Marshall Sahlins
    • change in systems of meaning and how individuals exploit it for their own
  21. Neomaterialism
    idea that technological and economical factors play the primary role in building a society.
  22. Neoevolutionism
    interested in infrastructure of modes of production and reproduction as well as the origin of cultural complexity and how things change function of institutions and beliefs – interested in casaulity and what causes change over time.
  23. cultural Materialism
    constraints of physical world on human behavior
  24. symbolic anthroplogy
    study of cultural symbols and how those symbols can be interpreted to better understand a particular society
  25. processual archaeology
  26. structuralism
    theory that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
  27. Globalization
    the interconnectedness of the world through economic exchange, media, migration and knowledge
  28. Ethnoscape
    • Arjun Appadurai
    • movement of people across cultures and borders
  29. Technoscape
    • Arjun Appadurai
    • movement of technology
  30. Mediascape
    • Arjun Appadurai
    • movement of media
  31. Financescape
    • Arjun Appadurai
    • movement of finances
  32. Ideoscape
    • Arjun Appadurai
    • movement of ideas
  33. Agency
    individual ability to exercise choice
  34. Habitus
    • Pierre Bourdieu
    • one's perception of the world and where they fit in
  35. Technomic artifacts
    • Lewis Binford
    • artifacts primary functional contexts are in coping directly with the
    • environment. Examples are hand axes, adzes, projectile points,
    • fishhooks, etc.
  36. Socio-technic artifacts
    • Lewis Binford
    • material elements having their primary functional context in the social
    • sub-systems of the total cultural system. Examples include a king’s
    • crown, a warrior’s coup stick, etc.
  37. Ideo-technic artifacts
    • Lewis Binford
    • items which signify or symbolize the ideological rationalizations for
    • the social system. Examples would be figures of deities, clan symbols,
    • symbols of natural agencies, etc.
  38. Stylistic formal attributes
    • qualities that cross-cut the three major classes of artifacts, which
    • serve to provide a sense of “style” and to promote group solidarity and a
    • basis for group awareness and identity. An example of this would be
    • Greek red or black figure motifs, which occur on ceramic vessels with
    • varied functional contexts.
  39. Materiality
  40. Phenomenology
    Christopher Tilley
  41. causality
  42. Technological Revolutions
    • Leslie White
    • Tool Making
    • Agriculture
    • industrial revolution
    • atomic
  43. Types of Economic Behavior
    • Economies vary according to social complexity
    • Reciprocity
    • Redistribution
    • Market
  44. Altruism
    • E.O. Wilson
    • sacrifice personal interest for others
  45. Kin selection theory
    • E.O. Wilson
    • selection affected by relatedness among individuals
  46. group selection
    • e.o. wilson
    • explain how traits (for example, altruistic behavior) that are costly to
    • individuals, but beneficial to larger groups, can persist
  47. grandmother hypothesis
    • Kristen hawkes
    • idea that humans evolved to live so long because grandmothers were around to help take care of the young
  48. Power
    ability to control people or things
  49. multivocality
    • feminist anthropology
    • multiple levels of meaning
    • relates to class, ethnicity, age, colonial experience
  50. Middle-Range Theory
    • Processual Archeaology
    • theories linking human behavior and natural processes to physical remains in the archaeological record
  51. Hegemony
    • Phillipe Bourgois
    • antonip gramsci
    • process where subordinates internalize rulers values as natural
  52. Counter Hegemony
    attempts to dismantle hegemonic power
  53. Equifinality
    • Ian Hodder
    • theory that a given pattern can be interpreted in different ways using different processes
  54. materiality
    • Marc Levine & David Carballo
    • how resources and the meanings of those resources shape acquisition. exchange, and use
  55. Phenomenology
    • Christopher Tilley
    • sensory experiences to view and interpret an archaeological site or cultural landscape.
  56. reflexivity
    relationship of cause and effect where one things affects another
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