Know the stages of healing and be able to describe them.
- Initial (lag phase) inflammatory phase - bleed is reduced as blood vessels in the affected area constrict.
- Proliferation phase - new tissue forms
- Maturation phase - involves the formation of scar tissur
Describe different types of minor surgery.
- laser - a laser emits an intense beam of light that is used to cut away tissue.
- Cryosurgery - the use of cold to destroy unwanted tissue.
- Electrocauterization - a technique where by a needle, probe, or loop heated by electric current destroys the target tissue.
Know what duties of an MA are in preparing for surgery.
- -Surgical asepisis
- -administrative duties
- -explainging procedure to the patient
- -inform & document current rx and otc medications
- -equipment, instruments & supplies clean, disinfected or sterilized and properly arranged
Know what to do to prepare for certain types of surgeries
- Cryosurgery - preparing patient for intial sensation of cold
- -burning sensation
- -remain still as possible to prevent damage of nearby tissue
- -more then one freezing cycle may be necessary
- Lasar surgery - close blinds and shades
- -remove any items that could catch fire
- -cover any shiny or reflective surfaces
- -everyone in the room wear safety googles to protect eyes
- -post a safety warning in the entryway to the room (per OSHA)
- -prep/drape patient as a conventional surgery
- -place gauze around surgical site
- -assist doctor with administration of local anesthetic ( if requested)
- -vaporized tissue is cleared away by a vacuum hose portion of the unit
- -apply pressure to control any bleeding
- -clean wound with antiseptic
- -apply sterile dressing
- -give patient post operative instruction
- electrocauterization - grounding pad or plate to be placed on/under the patient during procedure
- -if using a smaller battery powered unit - confirm charge of battery
Know what type of instruments are used in surgery and know the order in which the surgeon would use them if you were assisting.
- -cutting instruments
- -grasping instruments
- -suture materials
- -needle holders and scissors
Know the names of all the different types of instruments
pages 841 thru 843
Define asepsis and know the 2 main types. Know what each of these types of asepisis include.
- Medical asepisis - hand washing is alway the first line of defense against spreading disease. The use of antimicrobial agents and PPE are also part of medical asepisis. proper handling of sharps and biohazard materials.
- Surgical asepisis - veiw the caution: handle with care section that contains rules for sterile technique.
- -creating a sterile feild
- -add sterile items to the sterile field
- -performing a surgical scrub
- -putting on sterile gloves
- -sanitizing, disinfectiong and sterilizing equipment
Know what your duties are in preoperative, intraoperative, assisting during and after surgery.
- preoperative procedures - preop instructions, administrative and legal tasks, easing the patients fears, preparing the surgical room, preparing the patient.
- intraoperative - administrating a local anesthetic, assisting the physician during surgery, sterile scrub assistant
- postoperative patient care - dressing wounds, bandaging wounds, postoperative instructions, and patient release
Know the different types of dressings and what materials you would need to dress a wound
gauze is the most common type of dressing and come in a variety of sizes and shapes.
Know the difference between dressings and bandages.
dressings are sterile material used to cover an incision. a bandage is a clean strip of guaze or elastic material over the dressing to help hold it in place.
What is included in a postoperative instructins, and what would be included in the post - op packet.
- include guidelines for pain management and instructions for wound care.
- Postoperative information also includes dietary or activity restrictions.
Know what is included in surgical room clean up and follow up care.
- clean up - place reuseable instruments in a disinfectectant soak til they can be cleaned
- -place disposable waste in the sharps or biohazard containers
- -clean the counters, tables and exam trays with a 10% bleach solution
- -disinfect small pieces od nonsurgical equipment
- -replace table and pillow paper
- follow up - the physician will examine the wound.
Define a onychectomy tray
clean and disinfectant tray. sterilize the surgical pack which includes scissors, several pairs of forceps, a needle holder, suture material, and sterilize gauze.