Anthropology Test 2

  1. what is kin group?
    anybody who you consider yourself related to

    ex. god parents, people you call aunt and uncle even when they are not related to you biologically
  2. What is nuclear family?
    family group consisting of a married couple and their offspring, when you move who moves with you

    ex. mom, dad, kids living together
  3. what is a household?
    group of people living together

    a dwelling or compound usually inhabited by consanguineous and affinal relatives
  4. what is extended family?
    culturally recognized relatives of varying degrees of distance
  5. what is consanguines?
    family related by blood
  6. what is affine?
    related because of marriage

    ex. father in law
  7. what is monogamy?
    having one spouse at a time
  8. what is polygyny?
    one man with more than one wife
  9. what is polyandry?
    one woman with more than one husband
  10. what are the two types of marriage rules?
    • 1. exogamous
    • 2. endogamous
  11. what does exogamous mean?
    marrying outside the family, marriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category
  12. what does endogamous mean?
    marrying inside the clan, within the group

    marriage rules requiring individuals to marry some member of their own social group or category
  13. what is bridewealth?
    custom in which a prospective groom and his relatives are required to transfer goods to the relatives of the bride to validate the marriage

    husband gives money to the bride
  14. what is the purpose of the bridewealth?
    to compensate the loss of labor, because the kids and wife will be a part of the husbands family now
  15. what is a sororate?
    custom whereby a widower marries a female relative of his deceased wife
  16. what is bride service?
    custom in which a man spends a period of time working for the family of his wife

    groom lives for years with the brides family until the family decides he is good enough for them
  17. what is dowry?
    custom in which the family of a woman transfers property or wealth to her and/or her husband's family upon her marriage

    brides family gives the groom family and the bride still goes off and lives with the grooms family
  18. what is levirate?
    custom whereby a widow marries a male relative (usually a brother) of her deceased husband
  19. what type of group uses brideservice?
    hunters and gatherers
  20. what are the four negatives that happen to women?
    • 1. demand without compensation
    • 2. bride burningĀ 
    • 3. Murdering brides so men can remarry and get more dowry
    • 4. threats toward the brides family to give more
  21. what is postmarital residence pattern?
    where the majority of newly married couples establish their own residence
  22. what are the 5 postmarital residence patterns?
    • 1. patrilocal
    • 2. matrilocal
    • 3. ambilocal
    • 4. biolocal
    • 5. neolocal
  23. what is patrilocal residence ?
    couples that live with or near the parents of the husband
  24. what is matrilocal residence?
    couples live with or near the wife's parents
  25. what is ambilocal residence?
    couples may choose to live with eirther the wife's or the husband's kin, roughly half of all couples chose each
  26. what is biolocal residence?
    jumping from one family to the other family
  27. what is neolocal residence?
    residence form in which a couple establishes a separate household apart from both the husband and wife's parents
  28. what is matrifocal family?
    family group consisting of a mother and her children, with a male only loosely attached or not present at allĀ 

    native americans used this method

    female centered living
  29. what is unilineal descent?
    descent through "one line"
  30. what are the two types of unilineal descent?
    • 1. patrilineal
    • 2. matrilineal
  31. what is partilineal descent?
    form of a descent in which individuals trace their most important kinship relationships through their fathers
  32. what is matilienal descent?
    form of descent in which individuals trace their primary kinship relationships through their mothers
  33. what group uses patrilineal decent?
  34. what group uses matrilineal descent?
  35. what is descent group?
    a group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor
  36. what is unlineal descent group?
    a group of relatives, all of whom are related through only one sex
  37. what is lineage?
    a unilineal descent group larger than an extended family whose members can actually trace how they are related
  38. what is clan?
    a named unilineal descent group, some of whose members are unable to trace how they are related, but who still believe themselves to be kinfolk
  39. what is nonunilineal descent?
    form of descent in which individuals do not regularly associate with either matrilineal or patrilineal relatives but make choices about whom to live with, whose land to use and so forth
  40. what is cognatic descent?
    form of descent in which relationships may be traced through both females and males
  41. what is cognatic descent group?
    a group of relatives created by tracing relationships through both females and males
  42. what are the two types of nonunilineal descent?
    • 1. cognatic
    • 2. bilateral
  43. what is bilateral descent?
    kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships equally through both parents
  44. what's the difference between sex and gender?
    sex is based on the genetic differences between male and female while gender is culturally defined
  45. What is nu to the hua culture?
    physical substance that can be gained or lost overtime

    women have a lot of nu
  46. what is gender stratification?
    the degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions as status, power or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions, and ability to make decisions about their own lives
  47. what are the five dimensions of gender stratification?
    • 1. kinds of social roles men and women perform
    • 2. Value placed on contributions to groups
    • 3. female deference to males
    • 4. access to positions of power and influence
    • 5. General beliefs about the sexes
  48. what is the hijra?
    • In the indian culture,
    • Biological males that are identified neither male or female
    • Wear women's clothing
    • Identify with the supernatural
    • Have genitals removed
  49. What are the two spirits?
    • In the Native American culture
    • Can be biologically male or female
    • Identified as both male and female
    • Taking work of the opposite sex and dress
    • Have a place and rule in society
  50. What is the Aka group?
  51. How is child care in the Aka group?
    • Men play a huge part in child care
    • Nurse up to 4 years old
    • Have many caregivers
  52. What is the Gusii?
    live off of crops and herding livestock
  53. how is childcare for the gusii group?
    • Nurse only from 16-20 months
    • calm the babies, not a lot of affection
    • have older siblings care for the baby
Card Set
Anthropology Test 2
anthropology test 2