1. How do fungi obtain nutrients?
    they release hydrolytic enzymes which break down the cell walls of the compounds, preparing them for absorption
  2. what are the three types of fungi
    • decomposer: break down wastes and dead organsisms
    • parasitic: absorb host cells
    • mutualistic: absorb nutrients from host cells but benefitting the host.
  3. Explain the body structure of fungi
    Fungi may be composed of two different types of body plans. Multicellular fungi are composed of filaments whereas single celled fungi are composed of yeasts.
  4. Explain the anatomy of multicellular fungi
    • multicellular fungi are composed of a network of tiny filaments called hyphae which gives the fungi it's structure. Hyphae are made out of chitin.
    • The entire conglomerate of hyphae is called mycelium which consists of the majority of the fungi body. The mycelium infiltrates the ground and is the source of fungal feeding.
  5. Why are most multicellular fungal body underground?
    Mycelium is the main feeding source for fungal body plants. They have a large surface area in order to maximize efficiency since the fungi are mostly sessile
  6. Explain what are mycorrhizal fungi
    Mycorrhizal fungi or mycorrhizae are fungi that form mutualistic relationships between fungi and plants. They help plants take in nutrients and water thus maximizes nutrient absorbtion
  7. How are mycorrhizae more efficient than plants in nutrient absorption?
    mycorrhizae contain specialized hyphae roots called haustoria which enter into the plant cell and extract/exchange nutrients from the cells.
  8. Describe the reproduction of fungi
    fungi reproduce may produce asexually, sexually or both depending on resource availability within the environment. Spores initiate fungal reproduction
  9. What are deuteromycetes
    fungi that do not undergo sexual reproduction. Only asexual
  10. describe the stages of fungal reproduction
    spores germinate into mycelium whose two cytoplasts then fuse (plasmogamy) into a heterokaryon. Within heterokaryon crossing over occurs and the nuclei fuse together (karyogamy) into a zygote (2n).
  11. Describe the fungi classes and how are they classified.
    • fungi are classified based on their sexual reproduction structures
    • chytridiomycota: contain flagellated spores called zoospores
    • zygomycota: live as parasites and produces a zygosporangium that contains multiple haploid nuclei from two parents after plasmogomy
  12. describe lichens
    lichens are fungi that  form symbiotic relationships between algae and fungi
  13. sporangium
    • structures that produces spores
    • haploid
  14. gametangium
    • structures that produce gametes. 
    • haploids
  15. zygosporangium
    • structures that contain zygotes
    • only found in Zygomycota
  16. Plasmogamy
    a process that occurs during fungi sexual reproduction where cytoplasm fuses to form a heterokaryon. During plasmogamy crossing over occurs
  17. Karyogamy
    a process that occurs during fungi sexual reproduction where the nuclei fuse forming a diploid zygote
  18. chytridiomycota
    sexual structures: flagellated spores
  19. -carp
  20. describe endomycorrhizae
    • endomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza that penetrates the cell wall of plant roots. Deep penetration aids in nutrient absorbtion
    • Glomeromycota
  21. describe ectomycorrhiza and what phylum
    • is a type of mycorrhizae that deos not invade the cell wall, but rather forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of the root. 
    • usually between woody plants
    • Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota
  22. Ascomycota
    • sac fungi
    • includes morels, lichens, yeast, penicillin
    • saprobic and parasitic
    • produces mycotozins that have antibiotic properties
  23. Basidiomycota
    • club fungi
    • includes mushrooms
  24. zygomycota
    • zygosporangium
    • includes rhizopus
    • prominently found in molding fruit and
  25. chytridiomycota
    • little pot fungi
    • flagellated sporangium
    • the oldest fungi phylum
    • leads to the decline of amphibians
  26. glomeromycota
    • fungi imperfecti
    • arbuscular mycorrhizae
Card Set
Some traits and parts of fungis