Repro2- Equine Pregnancy and Foal Care

  1. How long is equine gestation?
    335-340 days
  2. What kind of placentation do equine placentas express?
    diffuse epitheliochorial (microcotyledonary)
  3. How long after fertilization does the embryo enter the uterus?
    day 5-6
  4. What is necessary for maternal recognition of pregnancy?
    embryo must maintain spherical shape (capsule) and migrate around the entire uterine lumen
  5. In practice, when is pregnancy diagnosis performed?
    day 14
  6. When does fixation of the embryo occur? Where does it occur?
    day 16; at base of uterine horn
  7. When does maternal recognition of pregnancy occur?
    ~day 12
  8. On what day of pregnancy do you US fetal heartbeat?
    day 25
  9. When is uterine tone maximal in a mare?
    during pregnancy (P4 from CL and conceptus)
  10. What are the functions of the endometrial cups, and when do they begin to form?
    come from fetus and secrete eCG to stimulate formation of secondary/accessory CLs to increase P4 production (to sustain pregnancy); form around day 35
  11. What is the clinical significance of endometrial cups?
    if mare loses her pregnancy after day 35 (when the cups form), she will not come into heat again until the cups go away on day 150
  12. When is the period of placental attachment?
    day 45-150
  13. What happens if you remove a mare's ovaries after day 120 of the pregnancy?
    Nothing- placenta has taken over making progesterone to sustain the pregnancy
  14. When does the placenta take over producing progesterone to maintain the pregnancy?
    day 120
  15. Most mares require ________ progesterone to maintain pregnancy.
  16. What will you feel on rectal palpation of a mare pregnant less than 25 days? (2)
    increased tone, closed cervix
  17. What will you feel on rectal palpation of a mare pregnant for 25-45 days? (2)
    asymmetry of horns, palpable vesicle as growing bulge at base of horn
  18. Why is it important to perform your initial pregnancy diagnosis b/w 12 and 16 days?
    diagnose pregnancy, make sure CL is there, determine if there are twins (must pinch before fixation at 16 days)
  19. Embryo mortality is low after _______.
    60 days
  20. What is the goal of managing equine pregnancy?
    keep the foal in the mare AS LONG AS POSSIBLE
  21. Why is it important to keep the foal in the mare for as long as possible?
    equine fetus matures very late in gestation; before 2 days prior to parturition, fetus's chances of survival outside the womb are very low
  22. Clinical signs of high risk pregnancy/ premature foaling? (4)
    premature udder development, colic, abdominal enlargement, +/- vulvar d/c
  23. Uterine torsion usually occurs in _________ gestation; clinical sign is _________; diagnosis is by ___________.
    mid to late; colic; rectal palpation
  24. If you are going to correct a torsion by rolling the mare, how do you lay her?
    lay her on the side of the torsion
  25. Excessive fetal fluid accumulation due to insufficient placentation.
    hydro-allantois (maternal hydrops)
  26. Excessive fetal fluid accumulation due to fetal defect, disabling it from swallowing.
    hydro-amnion (fetal hydrops)
  27. Clinical signs of hydrops. (6)
    acute abdominal enlargement in last trimester, unable to palpate fetus, anorexia, colic, tachycardia/tachypnea, ventral edema
  28. How do you manage a mare with hydrops?
    supportive care, abdominal support to prevent rupture of pre-pubic tendon, let the foal cook as long as possible
  29. How do you assist a hydrops mare with foaling?
    gradually remove fluid from the uterus or you will cause hypovolemic shock
  30. Clinical signs of pre-pubic tendon rupture due to hydrops. (3)
    sawhorse stance, hemorrhagic mammary secretions, ventral edema
  31. How can you manage a hydrops mare who has ruptured her pre-pubic tendon? (3)
    abdominal support, NSAIDs, don't rebreed her
  32. What is the safest way to induce parturition?
    low dose oxytocin
  33. Common cause of abortion b/w 5 and 10 months gestation.
  34. What is the most common organism to cause placentitis?
    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
  35. Clinical signs of placentitis. (2)
    premature mammary development, thickening of cervical star
  36. How do you diagnose placentitis?
    US measurement of the combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP<1.5cm); thickening, separation, and purulent exudate
  37. Infection at base of uterine horn but with a normal CTUP.
    nocardioform placentitis
  38. How do you treat placentitis?
    antibiotics, NSAIDs, maintain uterine quiescence (Altrenogest)
  39. What is "red bag"?
    premature placental separation of chorion with rupture of the membrane
  40. Premature placental separation is a common sequelae of __________; it leads to __________; treat by...
    placentitis; fetal hypoxia; CUT IT ASAP.
  41. Twin pregnancies usually occur from __________; they can be... (2)
    2 ovulations; synchronous (same size) or asynchronous (different aged fetuses)
  42. Twin pregnancies ultimately lead to...
    abortion due to lack of placental support to fetuses.
  43. How can a twin pregnancy be reduced? (2)
    spontaneous twin reduction- naturally (when embryos of unequal size are fixed in the same horn); manual crushing/pinching of smaller vesicle before day 16
  44. What is the best way to predict when foaling will occur?
    evaluate milk secretions electrolytes: Ca2+ and  K+ increase prior to foaling, Na+ decreases
  45. After the second stage of labor starts, you have _______ to get the foal out.
    30 min
  46. How do you care for the foal immediately after birth? (4)
    remove amnion from nostrils, place foal sternally, DO NOT cut the umbilical cord (rip it with your fingers if you must), disinfect umbilicus
  47. How often should you check and disinfect the foals umbilicus?
    idodine 3-4 times day 1, chlorohexidine 2-3times/day for 2-4 days; check every day for heat, swelling
  48. What are the 4 main routes of infection in neonates?
    umbilicus, pneumonia, GI, placentitis [in order] (make sure to check joints as well)
  49. Normal CRT, temp, HR, and RR of a foal.
    • CRT: 1-2s
    • Temp 99-102
    • HR>60
    • RR>60
  50. What are the 1,2,3s of foal care?
    • suckling reflex: 1-20min
    • 1h: standing
    • 2h: nursing
    • 3h: meconium
  51. When is the placenta considered retained in a mare?
    after 3 hours
  52. When should meconium passage be complete? What if it isn't?
    by 24 hrs old; give an enema as prophylaxis for meconium impaction
  53. Quantity of IgG in maternal colostrum rapidly decreases during __________; fetal ability to non-specifically absorb protein from the gut rapidly decreases during the _________.
    first 12 hrs; first 24 hrs
  54. Main Ig in colostrum is _________; in milk is _______.
    IgG; IgA
  55. Maternal causes of FPT. (1)
    poor quality colostrum (pre-partum dripping)
  56. Neonatal causes of FPT. (2)
    lack of nursing, immune GI (rare)
  57. Good quality colostrum should have a specific gravity of _______.
  58. What are normal IgG levels in a foal by 24 hrs after birth?
    800 mg/dL
  59. Failure to secrete colostrum or milk.
  60. How do you handle agalactia? (2)
    provide 0.5-1L of good colostrum to the foal within the first 6 hours; stimulate mare's milk with Domperidone (DA antagonist- DA blocks Prl)
  61. What risk does bottle feeding pose to foals?
    aspiration pneumonia
  62. Describe placental evaluation. (4)
    weight should be 11% of foal, integrity (missing parts), length of umbilical cord, villous distribution
  63. What 3 areas of the placenta should be avillous normally?
    cervical star, 2 UTJs
  64. What might a large avillous area of the placenta indicate?
    dead twin
  65. Meconium staining of the placenta indicates __________.
    fetal stress
  66. Mares usually come into heat ________ post-partum; this is the _________.
    ~7days; foal heat
  67. Criteria for breeding a mare in foal heat. (3)
    no complications foaling/post-partum, no intrauterine fluid accumulation, ovulation occurs at least 10 days after foaling
  68. If not breeding in the foal heat, you should breed ________.
    at 30 day cycle
  69. _________ commonly coincides with the mare's foal heat; it is __________.
    Foal diarrhea; self-limiting
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Repro2- Equine Pregnancy and Foal Care
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