eco and evo 4

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  1. reptiles are closer to birds or amphibians?
  2. what kind of skull does turtles have?
    anapsid (no hole, just orbit)
  3. birds and crocodiles
    • have diapsid skull, which has two pairs of temporal openings with orbit
    • also tuataras and squamata has it too
  4. synpside
    mammals which one pair of lateral temporal opening
  5. what are dinosaurs closest to?
    birds and crocodiles
  6. what groups are snakes, worm lizards and lizards in?
    squamata: males with hemipenes (external reproductive organs), characteristics of skeleton
  7. lepidosaurians
    • tuataras (special type of reptiles) and squamata group
    • skin shed in one piece, characteristics of bone growth, skull, pelvis feet
  8. amniotes
    extraembryonic membranes of amnion, chorion and allantois
  9. reptiles are more closely related to what than what?
    more close to birds and mammals than to amphibians
  10. why are reptiles and amphibians grouped together
    • because they are cold blooded (ectotherms, cannot produce their own heat)
    • whereas birds and mammals can produce their own heat.
  11. classes of reptiles
    • testudines order (turtles)
    • crocodilia 
    • squamata
    • sphenodonta (tuatara)
  12. general reproductive characteristics of reptiles
    • amniotic eggs with shell
    • internal fertilization
    • oviparous, ovoviviparous and viviparous (few)
    • direct development
  13. oviparous
    produce eggs that hatch outside the body
  14. ovoviviparous
    • there's no placental connection and the unborn young is nourished by egg yolk 
    • eggs hatched within the body, young are born alive
  15. viviparous
    • all mammals except the monotremes
    • eggs hatched inside with placenta
  16. general characteristics of reptiles
    • epidermal scales and claws
    • 5 digits on each limb
    • thoracic ribs (except turtles), important for respiration, neg pressure expand
  17. eggs of reptiles
    • amnion: inner membrane surrounding the baby
    • leathery shell
    • yolk
    • chorion: outmost membrane around embryo that protects the baby, allow transfer of nutrients from maternal blood to fetal blood
    • Allantois: sac like structure allows for gas exchange, highly vascularized and allow waste to exchange
  18. melanophores
    • cells in skin that can change colors by dispersing or congregating
    • reptile skin is always covered in scales to keep moisture (not dependent on water anymore)
    • amphibians still depend on water
  19. osteoderm
    bony deposits forming scales in dermis layer
  20. flexible hinge
    part the curves in in scale
  21. lonesome george
    • lives in Galapagos island
    • giant turtle, lonely survivor
    • necks and shell shaped to best suit the amount of food and the type of food
    • (domed shaped shell and short necks when there's a lot of food)
    • saddlelike shell (like George) help reach more food (longer necks)
    • can live for a year without food or water
  22. turtle sex determination
    • depends on temperature (males develop at lower temp (below 20C)
    • crocodiles, males develop at higher temp
  23. squamata
    • shed their epidermal scales with growth
    • geckos with fat tails
  24. chameleon (what order?)
    • squamata
    • change color based on mood and temp
    • chromatophore (less dense and more concentrated changes color)
    • remarkable vision (pupil moving)
  25. viperidae
    • vipers are family of snake
    • sheathed fangs at the front of mouth that allow deep penetration to release venom
  26. elapidae
    short, immovable fangs at front of mouth
  27. colubridae
    • rear fanged (or no fangs)
    • mostly nonpoisonous
  28. hydrophiidae
    • sea snakes
    • extremely poisonous
  29. boidae
    • constrictors, used to kill prey
    • many retain vestigial pelvic structures
  30. parts of viperidae
    • pit organ to sense heat (they mostly eat at night), has receptor nerve endings packed with mitochondria
    • discharge orifice to discharge venom
  31. komodo dragon
    • largest living lizard in the world
    • kills with virulent bacteria on teeth (blood poisoning)
  32. ectotherm vs. endotherm
    • ectotherm: need external energy to increase temp (bask in sun), snake
    • endotherms: (keep constant temp), need regular amount of food to regulate physiological processes, bobcat
  33. heat sources that lose energy
    • conduction: lose heat by touching other materials
    • evaporation loses heat too
    • thermal radiation back to sun
    • convection (hot air rises, cool air falls)
  34. characteristics of birds
    • bipedal
    • feathers for insulation and lift and thrust
    • toothless beaks
    • wings with fused digits
    • ability to fly
  35. what are adaptations associated with flight
    • skeleton
    • musculature
    • physiology
  36. earliest bird, rarest bird
    • Archaeopteryx
    • pink flyer
  37. why do birds have so much adaptive radiation?
    • they can fly and move around/ complicated behaviors
    • diff mating calls, small mistake creates hybrids
  38. bowerbirds
    make nest look pretty to attract females
  39. hawaiian honeycreepers
    • radiation within smaller groups
    • radiation in body parts
  40. current classification of birds
    • 29 orders
    • 187 families
    • 2000+genera
    • 10,000 species
  41. regional community vs local community
    • regional is the landscape
    • local is the habitat within that landscape
  42. what is used to construct phylogenic tree of birds
    • based on shared, derived characteristics (like the pattern on their back)
    • diff birds share same middle ear bone
  43. archaeopteryx
    • teeth, 3 digits on fingers, big tail
    • in Germany
    • undeveloped sternum (breastbone compared to modern birds)
    • wings not as strong, longer tail
    • transition form between reptiles and birds (support Darwinism evolution)
  44. cursorial and arboreal hypothesis
    • cursorial (ground up)
    • arboreal (trees down)
  45. herman von meyer
    archaeopteryx lithographica
  46. ground up hypothesis
    • assume biped, cursorial (having limbs adapted for running) ancestor 
    • bones of legs are long
    • large legs for running muscle attachment
    • once running, use feathers for other things like catching insects, and picking up minimum speed for lift.
  47. trees down hypothesis
    • semi bipedal leaping and gliding ancestor
    • claws to scale trees, retained in winged appendages
    • short hand wing (power), long arm wing (lift)
    • no keeled sternum
  48. what kind of fish gives rise to amphibians
  49. why evolve flight?
    • escape predators
    • help catch flying or speedy prey
    • help move from place to place (leaping or gliding), vigilance, migration, nomadism
    • free hind legs for use as weapon
  50. thecodonts and therapsids
    • therapsids (mammals)
    • thecodonts (dinosaurs, birds, crocodiles)
  51. all modern birds lie within neornithes, what are the two subdivisions
    flightless or little flying and all others
  52. archosauria
    birds and crocodiles
  53. function of feathers
    • flight
    • heat conservation (reduced convective and evaporative heat loss, increased insulation)
    • made of keratin
    • most conspicuous integumental derivative
  54. feather development
    • interaction between epidermis and dermal mesenchyme
    • form dermal papila (bump in dermis, also called placode)
    • mitotic divisions in a collar zone of stratum germinativum to form crown of barbs
    • covered by a horny sheath of epidermis
  55. differential cell division on one side of the papilla
    • timing of expression of two proteins (Shh and Bmp2)
    • forms shaft, carrying barbs
    • base of the feather recedes into the skin
    • degeneration of epidermal sheath
  56. types of feather
    • contour 
    • semiplumes
    • down
    • bristles
    • filoplume
  57. contour
    • insulating and flight
    • vanes symmetrical and vanes asymmetrical
    • wings, and tails
  58. semiplumes
    • rachis greater than barbs
    • ostrich
  59. down
    • rachis less than barbs
    • insulating 
    • adult and natal (lost)
    • powder down for waterproofing
  60. bristles
    • little or no vane, little barbs
    • on face on whip-poor-will
  61. filoplume
    • pennaceous feathers (quill)
    • attached to sensory corpuscles in skin
  62. how do birds sing?
    no vocal cords, fill cavity with air and vibrate cavity
  63. Pigment colorization in birds comes from three different groups
    • carotenoids (from plants, bright colors)
    • melanins (brown and black)
    • porphyrines (modifying amino acids, produce a range of colors)
Card Set
eco and evo 4
exam 2
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