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The study of the causes and consequences of sociality
Behavior with they purpose of harming another
A principle stating that animals aggress when their goals are thwarted
Under what circumstances do women aggress?
- They premeditated and plan their aggression
- They are more likely attaining or protecting a resource.
- They are more likely to do it by social harm (silent treatment, rumors etch)
What evidence suggests that culture can influence aggression?
- Southern men are taught to aggress when their status is threatened.
- When insulted and then confronted by someone walk toward them they are more likely than northerners to not move aside.
- Northerners were more likely to still move than insulted Southern men, but less likely to move than not insulted Southern men
What makes cooperation risky?
You could get stabbed in the back by the person you're cooperating with.
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Members of groups positively prejudice to people in their group and negatively discriminate against another group
Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
A collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
Positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
Common knowledge effect
The tendency for group discussions to focus on info that all members share
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone
The tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony
The phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
Diffusion of responsibility
The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded byte others who are acting the same way
The tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than when alone
The act of helping strangers in an emergency
What are the costs of groups?
- Groups don't take advantage of a single expert
- They give more weight to opinions of loud/high status members than to others, even if the other people know better
- Common knowledge effect
- Group polarization
- Diffusion of responsibility
- Social loafing
Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Are humans ever truly altruistic?
Yes, but we are still much more likely to expect reciprocal altruism and we help our kin more
Why are women choosier than men?
- There are more men going after them
- They have higher risk if their is a pregnancy
- Men are socially expected to go after women so women tend to work less for it and be pickier
Why does proximity influence attraction?
- Because we like old stimuli better
- Mere exposure effect
- Being in the same place at the same time means they are more likely to see each other more
Why is physical appearance so important?
- It tells us who are more likely to have more money, better health and even better personalities.
- We want our babies to be beautiful
What kinds of info does physical appearance convey?
- Body shape: Testosterone levels
- Symmetry: Sign of health
- Age: Young women are better at birthing, old men have better resources
Why is similarity such a powerful determinant of attraction?
- It's easy to interact with similar people
- Sharing our attitudes and beliefs makes people more confident in them
- We can expect them to like them for the same reason.
An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction
An experience involving affections, trust and concern for a partner's well being
The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
The cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
A state of affairs where the cost benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal
Why do people form long term romantic relationships?
Because babies come out half baked. Babies need parents who will stick around together to raise it.
How do people weigh costs and benefits of their relationships?
- Comparison level
- Relationships can be thought of as investments, ending new marriage is more common than ending old ones
The ability to control another person's behavior
Survival and reproduction
Require scarce resources and aggression and cooperation are two ways to get them
The likelihood a person will aggress when they feel negative effect
- Is determined by both biological factors and cultural factors.
- However everyone is more likely to aggress when confronted by negative effects
One strategy for reducing cooperation's risks is
- To form a group where everyone has a bias toward helping each other.
- Groups often behave badly
Behaviors that appear to altruistic
Often have hidden benefits for the person who does them. However people can be altruistic
Attraction is determined by
- Situational factors like proximity
- Physical factors like symmetry
- Psychological factors like similarity
When do people tend to dissolve relationships?
When they weigh the costs and benefits of a relationship and think they can or should do better, when they and their partner have different cost-benefit ratios or when they have little invested in the relationship
How effective are rewards and punishments?
- Although they are really effective there is still a problem of them sometimes backfiring.
- Some people do things to prove they can
- Some people stop doing things because they see no reason to without a reward
Customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culture
Norm of reciprocity
The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefitted them
A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about that is appropriate
Door in the face technique
An influence strategy that involves getting someone to deny an initial request
The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
How are we influenced by other people's behavior?
Unwritten rules of social interaction influence our behavior, especially if other people are or are not following them.
Why do we do what we see other people doing?
- They can define new norms in vague and novel situations
Why do we do what others tell us to do?
- Because we believe them to have power
The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
How do informational and normative influences differ?
- Informational influences provides new information about what is true.
- Normative influences provides information about what is appropriate
An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
A phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is true
A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
The process where attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason
The process where attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
Foot in the door technique
A technique that involves making a small request and following it by a larger request
When is it more effective to appeal to reason or to emotion?
- The more effective form depends on whether the person is willing to and able to weigh evidence and analyze evidence
- Reason: When evidence and arguments are strong
- Emotion: When habit and emotion are strong
Why do we care about being consistent?
Because we use consistency to determine if something is true or not
An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
The processes by which people come to understand others
What happens when we are inconsistent
The hedonic motive
- Escape pain and experience pleasure
- People can be influenced by reward and punishment but those can backfire
The approval motive
- Get approval from others
- People can be influenced by others' opinions/norms (like reciprocity)
- People look at others to determine what to do which can cause obedience to something disastrous
The accuracy motive
- People are motivated to know what is true
- People can be influenced by other people's behaviors and communications.
- Causes people to seek consistency among their attitudes, beliefs and actions