1. Prominent epicanthal folds are an expected variant in _______ infants, but may be also suggestive of ________ in other races.
    • Asian
    • Down syndrome
  2. Why should cycloplegic and mydriatic agents be avoided during pregnancy?
    because of systemic absorption. duh!
  3. The use of __________ after instillation of topical eye medications may reduce systemic absorption.
    nasolacrimal duct occlusion
  4. A palpable left supraclavicular node is a clue to what?
    abdominal or thoracic malignancy
  5. What does an enlarged thyroid with 2 or more nodules suggest?
    A metabolic process (rather than malignant)
  6. The ________ glands are located anterior to the ear and above the mandible.
  7. The ______ glands are located medial to the mandible at the angle of the jaw.
  8. The _____ glands are located anteriorly in the floor of the mouth.
  9. When does the fetal thyroid gland become functional?
    In the second trimester
  10. WHen does the posterior fontanel close?
    by 2 months
  11. When does the anterior fontanel close?
    12-15 mos
  12. A horizontal jerking or bobbing motion of the head may be associated with a _________.
  13. A nodding movement of the head may be associated with ______, especially if the nodding is synchronized with the ______.
    • aortic insufficiency
    • pulse
  14. If only the mouth is envolved in facial asymmetry, suspect a problem with which CN?
    peripheral trigeminal
  15. Syndrome resulting in maxillary and midfacial hypoplasia.
  16. The parotid duct is aka as the ______ duct and opens into the mouth next to the maxillary ________ tooth..
    • Stenson
    • second molar
  17. The ________ duct opens in a small papila at the sides of the frenulum.
    submandibular (Wharton)
  18. A bruit over the orbit may rarely be heard in people with diplopia and suggest _______.
    expanding cereebral aneurysm
  19. Intracranial bruits are common in ______ and uncommon in ______.
    • childhood
    • neonates
  20. A bruit heart over the temporal arteries is highly suggestive of ________.
    a vascular anomaly
  21. What is a Cardarelli sign?
    • Can be felt by pressing on the thyroid cartilage and displacing it to the left,
    • systolic pulsationsare felt if an aneurysm is present
  22. How is an Oliver sign elicited?  What does it indicate?
    • by gently grasping the cricoid cartilage and applying upward pressure while pt stand w/ chin extended upward
    • downward tug may be felt if aneurysm is present
  23. Subcutaneous edema oer the presenting part of the baby's head at delivery.
    Caput Succedaneum
  24. Subperiosteal collection of blood in newborn.
  25. A third fontanel, called the ______ fontanel, may be a normal finding but is also common in infants with __________.
    • mastoid
    • Down Syndrome
  26. A mass in the lower third of the SCM muscle may indicate _______.
  27. Percussion of the skull near the junction of the frontal, temporal, and parietal bones producing a resonant sound when either hydrocephalus or a brain abscess is present.
    Macewen sign
  28. When are cranial bruits common?
    up to 5 yrs old or in kids with anemia
  29. What causes thyroid hypertrophy in pregnancy?
    • hyperplasia of glandular tissue and
    • increased vascularity (also may hear a bruit)
  30. The _______ conductive coats the inside of the eyelids.
  31. The ________ conjuctiva covers the outer surface of the eye.
    bulbar or ocular
  32. The six eye muscles are innervated by which CNs?
    • III (oculomotor)
    • IV (trochlear) -> superior oblique
    • VI (abducens -> lateral rectus
  33. The ________ is the site of central vision.
    macula or fovea
  34. When to infants produce a full volume of tears?
    2-3 weeks
  35. Mild ________ edema and thickening associated with blurred vision may occur in pregnancy, esp in third trimester.
  36. What is the major physiologic eye change that occurs with aging?
    Presbyopia - a progressive weakening of accommodation (focusing power)
  37. By ____ you, the lens becomes more rigid and the ciliary muscle becomes weaker.
  38. What may cause loss of clarity of the lens and contribute to cataract formation as we get older?
    Old fibers that are compressed centrally, forming a denser region.
  39. Acute infection of sebaceous glands of Zeis
  40. Chronic blockage of meibomian gland
  41. Six risk factors for cataracts
    • Fam hx
    • steroid meds
    • UV light exposure
    • smoking
    • DM
    • aging
  42. Monocular diplopia is an ________ problem; binocular diplopia is an _____ problem.
    • optical
    • alignment
  43. _____ testing may be particularly helpful in determining subtle optic nerve disease, even when visual acuity remains nearly normal.
  44. Ptosis indicates a congenital or acquired weakness of the _______ muscle or a paresis of a branch of the _____ CN.
    • levator
    • third
  45. The avg upper lid position is ____ below the limbus (border of cornea and sclera).
  46. Where is the average lower lid position?
    at the lower limbus
  47. What is ectropion and what may result?
    • When the lower lid is turned away from the eye 
    • excessive tearing (tears cannot be collected)
  48. What is entropion? What may result?
    • The lid is turned inward
    • corneal and conjunctival irritation (increases risk of secondary infection)
  49. What does the pt often report with entropion?
    foreign body sensation
  50. What is a hordeolum (stye) generally caused by?
    Staph infection
  51. What is blepharitis and what causes it?
    • crusting along eyelashes
    • bacterial infection, seborrhea, psoriasis, rosacea, or allergic response
  52. An eye that feels very firm and resists palpation may indicate what?
    severe glaucoma or retrobulbar tumor
  53. An abnormal growth of conjunctiva that extends over the cornea from the limbus.
  54. A pterygium is more common in which people?
    those exposed to UV light
  55. Which CN controls corneal sensitivity?
    V (trigeminal)
  56. Decreased corneal sensation is often associated with?
    • DM
    • herpes
    • after neuralgia sx
  57. Common cause of miosis.
    • narcotics like morphine
    • drugs that control glaucoma
  58. Expect the pupils to _____ when focusing on a near object.
  59. A failure to respond to direct light but retaining constriction during accomodation is sometimes seen in pts with _______ or ______.
    • DM
    • syphilis
  60. What may cause the sclera to appear green or yellow?
    liver or hemolyti disease
  61. Exposure of the sclera above the iris when the pt is asked to follow a finger as the eye is directed in a smooth movement from ceiling to floor is called ____.  What may this indicate?
    • lid lag
    • thyroid disease
  62. What should you do if you find an imbalance with the corneal light reflex?
    cover uncover test
  63. In is normal to see ________ on the disc through the ophthalmoscope.
    venous pulsation
  64. Arterioles are _________ than venules, generally by a ration of ______.
    • smaller
    • 3:5 or 2:3
  65. Blood vessels always branch ______ from the optic disk.
  66. Why is the optic disk called the "blind spot"?
    It is where the retina converges to the optic nerve and thre are no photoreceptors
  67. __________ can appear as small, discrete spots that are slightly more yellow than the retina, and are a precursor of ________.
    • Drusen bodies
    • macular degeneration
  68. When drusen bodies are noted to be increasing in number or in intensity of color, use an ______ to evaluate the patient's ______ vision.
    • Ambler grid
    • central
  69. A hemorrhage at the disc margin often indicates poorly controlled or undiagnosed ________.
  70. ______-shaped hemorrhages occur in the nerve fiber layers, and the blood spreads parallel to the nerve fibers.
  71. ______ hemorrhages tend to occur in the deeper layers and may appear as a dark color instead of the bright red that is characteristic of flame hemorrhages.
  72. _____ hemorrhages may actually represent microaneurysms, which are commin in diabetic retinopathy.
  73. The direct ophthalmoscope does not permit the distinction b/w ____ hemorrhages and ______.
    • dot
    • microaneurysms
  74. Whit specks scattered in a linear pattern around the entire circumference of the iris are called _______ and strongly suggest ________.
    • Brushfield spots
    • Down syndrome
  75. Interuptions of the red reflex may indicate _________.
    congenital cataracts or retinoblastoma
  76. In pts with PIH, there is a segmental arteriolar narrowing with a wet, glistening appearance indicative of ______.
Card Set
HEENT Ch 9-12