Cancer Principles NUR 106

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  1. Normal cells are?
    • Eupoid-23 pairs of chromosomes
    • adhere close together
  2. Cancer cells are?
    • Aneupoid-as cancer cells become malignant they lose or gain chromosomes.
    • adhere loosely together
    • are not contact inhibited
  3. Dysplasia
    bizarre cell growth causes different size, shape or arrangement.
  4. Neoplasia
    • new cell growth not needed for normal body cell growth or replacement of dead or missing tissue. 
    • Neoplasm-synonymous with Tumor
  5. Anaplasia
    without shape or differentiation.  Cells loose the specific appearance of the parent cell and become “poorly differentiated”.
  6. Hyperplasia
    increase in tissue size by number of cells
  7. *Benign
    • —Well-differentiated ——
    • Slow rate of growth,
    • normal mitosis ——
    • Usually cohesive,
    • well-defined borders
    • —No metastasis
  8. *Malignant
    • —Anaplasia
    • ——Erratic growth,
    • numerous mitosis ——
    • Locally invasive ——
    • Frequently metastasis is present.
  9. Adenoma
    is a tumor of epithelial cells.  Somatotroph adenoma
  10. Glioma
    is a tumor composed of neuroglial cells in the brain.
  11. Lipoma
    fatty tumor
  12. Hemangioma
    tumor of dilated blood vessels.
  13. Adenocarcinoma
    30% - 35% of all lung cancer.
  14. Glioblastoma
    one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors.
  15. Liposarcoma
    malignant tumor derived from embryonal fat cells.
  16. Hemangioendothelioblastoma
    neoplasm of epithelial cells that line           blood vessels.
  17. Adeno
    epithelial glands
  18. Squamous
    epithelial layer
  19. Chondro
  20. Glio
  21. Hepato
  22. Lympho
    lymphoid tissues
  23. Osteo
  24. TNM
    • T = primary tumor
    • N = regional lymph nodes
    • M = distant metastasis

    • Tx,T0-T4, Tis
    • Nx, N0-N3
    • Mx, M0-M1
  25. Rhabdo
    skeletal muscle
  26. Chemo-specific
    lung cancer that spreads to the brain will continue to be treated with lung cancer chemo.
  27. Cytoreductive surgery
    Debulks the gross tumor-doesn't result in cure, but will increase the chances of other therapies being effective.
  28. Reconstructive
    Improve appearance or increase function
  29. Common Symptoms of Radiation
    taste changes, fatigue, tissue fibrosis & scarring
  30. Antineoplastic agents?
    Cytotoxic agents-designed to interfere with cellular reproduction
  31. Chemotherapy side effects
    • —Extravasation of IV medications —
    • Alopecia —
    • Mucositis & diarrhea —
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Anemia
    • Immunosuppression neutropenia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  32. Cancer cells & apoptosis
    They do not respond to programmed cell death
  33. socioeconomic and cancer
    • unable to afford sunscreen
    • increase drug and alochol use
    • financial stress
    • Poor nutrition
    • Poor education in prevention of cancer
  34. Nutrition and cancer
    • processed foods
    • meats and perservatives
    • food coloring
    • sodium nitrates and nitrites
    • sodium benzoate
    • BHA also used in rocket fuel
  35. environmental
    • radiation
    • sun exposure
    • pollution
    • dietary
    • second hand smoke
  36. genetics and cancer
    hereditary predisposition to cancer
  37. viruses and cancer
    • HPV
    • HIV
    • Herpes zosters
    • hepatitis 
    • epstein barr
  38. radiation side effets
    • systemic effects noted by receiving beam radiation=fatigue and altered taste.
    • tissue fibrosis and scarring
    • changes to organs underneath
    • alopecia, nausea vomiting,fatigue, diarrhea, sexual and fetility changes, skin changes. Depending on location of radiation, organs will be affected example of prostate cancer leading to urinary or bladder changes. thyroid cancer- leads to throat changes/vocal changes.
  39. brachytherapy-close therapy radiation
    radionuclide iodine for thyroid cancer=pt. is radioactive
  40. Chemotherapy
    Diff. routes to target specific cancer
  41. Typical side effects when chemo and radiation combined.
    • week 1-taste changes-leads to nutrition issues.
    • week 2-thicker secretions dependent on what type of cancer you're being treated for.
    • week 3-more discomfort in throat
    • week 4-pain when swallowing
    • week 5-skin changes
    • week 6-severe sunburn to skin
    • week 7 thick secretions, more pain, dysphagia, breaks in skin like wet sunburn.
  42. Epoietin affa (Epogen, procrit)
    Colony Stimulating Factor, Erythrocytes affected.
  43. sargramastim (leukine)
    Colony stimulating factors- Macrophages and monocytes affected-used on bone marrow transplant units
  44. Filgrastim (neupogen)
    CSF-colony stimulating factor-Neutrophils affected
  45. Oprelvekin (neumega)
    CSF-Colony stimulating factor for Platelets.
    • C: hanges in bowel/bladder habits
    • A: sore that doesn't heal
    • U: nusual bleeding/discharge
    • T: thickening/lump
    • I: indigestion/ dysphagia
    • O: Obvious change in wart/mole
    • N: nagging cough
Card Set
Cancer Principles NUR 106
Cancer Principles
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