Alimentary Canal: Intestines to Anus

  1. Intestines are?
    region of the digestive tract located between the stomach and cloaca/ anus

    All vertebrates have one that is differentiated into a small intestine and a large intestine; have both a small and large intestine
  2. Small intestine- function
    all digestion is completed and most of absorption occurs
  3. Parts of the Small intestine (1)
    all contain a duodenum: most fixed; next to the pylorus--portion that receives the pancreatic ducts' and common bile duct, as well as the liver and gall bladder
  4. Parts of the Small intestine (2)
    Ileum: very mobile
  5. Parts of the Small intestine (3)
    Mammals have a third one--the jejunum-- that is present in only them; very mobile between the duodenum and ileum
  6. Modifications to the small intestine
    - fish
    • Modifications to increase the surface area
    • - fish: contains a spiral valve (particularly evident in chondrichthyes; lining is spiraled through the small intestine to increase the surface area
  7. Modifications to the small intestine
    - amphibians through mammals
    Amphibians through mammals: you have the lining thrown into pleats called plicae (pleated as opposed to irregular); higher vertebrates have villi (fingerlike projections of the mucosa)
  8. At the end of the ileum is the __. What is it?
    ileocolic valve

    it is a sphincter that controls digestion between the small intestine to the large intestine
  9. Large intestines
    little bit of absorption of minerals, but not of nutrients; other function is to form the feces to get ready for excretion
  10. From amphibians to mammals, the small intestine is __ in comparison to the large intestine, which is __.
    longer and coiled 

    generally straight (large refers to diameter)
  11. In fish, there is __. It __
    a rectal gland that is not a digestive gland

    it excretes salt
  12. Cecum
    a blind outpocketing (diverticulum) of the digestive tract
  13. In all animals except mamma,s the ceca are ?
    used as an increased surface area for digestion. It is where digestion and some absorption can take place in the ceca.
  14. In herbivores that have ceca..
    there may be bacteria in there to further assist in cellulose digestion. In most mammals, the ceca has no digestive activity, particularly in the higher mammals
  15. Cloaca
    the end of the digestive tract in some animals that receives the intestines, urinary duct, and reproductive ducts.

    It is the exit for digestive waste, liquid waste, and gametes.

    It is present in all vertebrates except the ray-finned fish and most mammals (except monotremes)
Card Set
Alimentary Canal: Intestines to Anus