Bio 130 Ch 11

  1. What are the four criteria necessary for genetic materila?
    Information, replication, transmission, and variation
  2. What are the levels of dna structure?
    Nucleotides, strand, double helix, chromosomes, and genome
  3. The building blocks of DNA or RNA.
  4. A linear polmer stand of dna or rna.
  5. The two strands of dna
    double helix
  6. dna associated with a array of different proteins into a complex structure
  7. The complete compliment of genetic material
  8. DNA is formed of these four nucleotides.
  9. Nucleotides are composed of three components:
    Phosphate group, Pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base
  10. what is the pentose sugar in dna?
  11. What are the nitrogenous bases of dna?
    Purines and pyrimidines
  12. What are the two purines?
    Adenine and guanine
  13. What are the two pyrimidines?
    Cytosine and thymine
  14. What are the nucleotides of rna?
  15. RNA nucleotides are composed of three components.
    Phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitogenous base
  16. What is the pentose group of rna?
  17. Nitogenous bases of RNA.
    Purines and Pyrimidines
  18. Purines of RNA
    Adenine and Guanine
  19. Pyrimidines of RNA
    Cytosine and Uracil
  20. This is in reference to bonds: where are sugar carbons attached?
  21. This is in reference to bonds: where are bases attached to?
    1' carbon on sugar
  22. this is in reference to bonds: where are the phosphate attached to?
    5' carcon on sugar
  23. How are nucleotides bonded?
    Covalently bonded
  24. THis bond links phosphate groups to two sugars
    Phosphodiester bond
  25. What is the backbone of the DNA?
    Phossphates and sugars
  26. THese project away from the backbone.
  27. How is DNA written?
    5'-3' Ex: 5'-TACG-3'
  28. What is the chargoff rule?
    A pairs with T and G pairs with C. Keeps the width consistent
  29. There are grooves in the space filling model. This is where proteins bind to affect gene expression
    Major grooce
  30. There are grooves in the space filling model. This narrow
    Minor groove
  31. Newly made dns strands are called.
    daughter strands
  32. Original dna strands are called
    parental strands
  33. provides an opening called a replication bubble that forms two replication forks. DNA replication proceeds outward from forks
    Origin of replication
  34. Bacteria have how many origin of replication and eukaryotes have how many?
    1 and multiple
  35. Binds to DNA and travels 5’ to 3’ using ATP to separate strand and move fork forward
    DNA helicase
  36. Relives additional coiling ahead of replication fork
    Dna topoisomerase
  37. Keep parental strands open to act as templates
    Single-strand binding proteins
  38. Covalently links nucleotides
    DNA polymerase
  39. Free nucleotides with three phosphate groups. Breaking covalent bond to release pyrophosphate (two phosphates) provides energy to connect nucleotides
    Deoxynucleoside triphosphates
  40. What are some features of dna polymerase?
    Cannot begin sythesis on a bare template strand (requires a primer), only works 5' to 3'
  41. The primer for DNA polymerase is?
    DNA primase. It makes the primer from RNA. The RNA primer is removed and replaced with DNA later
  42. When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to the leading strand?
    DNA synthesized in as one long molecule. DNA primase makes a single RNA prime. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides in a 5’ to 3’ direction as it slides forward
  43. When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to the lagging strand?
    DNA synthesized 5’ to 3’ but as Okazaki fragments. Okazaki fragments consist of RNA primers plus DNA
  44. When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to both strands?
    RNA primers are removed by DNA polymerase and replaced with DNA. DNA ligase joins adjacent DNA fragments
  45. What are the three mechanisms for accuracy?
    Hydrogen bonding and dna polymerase
  46. Series of short nucleotide sequences repeated at the ends of chromosomes in eukaryotes
  47. Telomere at 3’ does not have a complementary strand and is called a
    3' overhang
  48. attaches many copies of DNA repeat sequence to the ends of chromosomes
    Telomerase enzyme
  49. Shortening of telomeres is correlated with cellular
  50. Discrete unit of genetic material
  51. Chromosomes are composed of?
  52. This is the dna-protein complex
  53. What are the three levels of dna compaction?
    DNA wrapping, 30-nm fiber, and radial loop domains
Card Set
Bio 130 Ch 11