14 Ling 204

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  1. Restricted code
    Typically associated by Bernstein with the working class and closed, multiple social networks, involve non-standard grammatical constructions that are short simple and often unfinished
  2. Elaborated code
    Elaborated codes, typically associated by Bernstein with the middle class and broader, less multiplex social networks. Involves standard syntax and complex sentences
  3. Self fulfilling prophecy
    A prophecy that causes itself to become true. The term is often used in education to suggest that high teacher expectations for a particular student lead to success for that student
  4. Contrastive analysis
    A method now little used in second Lange acquisition that focuses on the similarities and differences between two varities
  5. Immersion
    A teaching method where students who speak one language (usually the socially dominant one) are taught content in another language by (bilingual) teachers
  6. Heritage language
    A language that is acquired by individuals raised in homes where the region's dominant language is not (exclusively) spoken
  7. Structured immersion programs
    Where students who don't speak the dominant language are taught that language and taught in that language
  8. Dual language programs
    When two languages are used fort instruction for a fairly long period
  9. Sociolinguistic and education
    • School is a place of ID creation and intense interaction
    • School is a place of socialization and language ideologies can be implemented or resisted
  10. School as a Sociolinguistic community
    • In industrial and post industrial societies people spend a lot of time in school
    • Lots of Sociolinguistic research especially on students 11-17 when the heterosexual market place exerts a strong effect, and when people are learning to be adults and create identities
  11. School related ways of being
    • Keepers of the institution: Work within the institution, tend to continue, officially successful often middle class. Elites may be athletes and academics
    • Rebels against the institution: don't define success in terms of the overt goals of the school, often working class. Deviants, may be athletes and academics
  12. Keepers and rebels
    • Reflect poles of behavior: many students are inbetweeners
    • Different names for these groups in different schools
    • Things group members do vary from place to place
  13. Languages things students do
    • Use language features to define themselves, to identify with particular groups
    • Trendy kids use trendy language
    • Kids who reject trendiness reject trendy language
  14. What students bring to school
    • Home language meets school language
    • Schools usually reflect their neighborhoods which are often socially and sociolinguistically distinct
  15. Home-school mismatch
    • Teacher may not be from the neighborhood especially if the neighborhood kids don't go on to higher education
    • Language of textbooks and materials is often not from the neighborhood
    • Causes worse outcomes for students
  16. Bernstein's hypothesis
    • An attempt to explain school failure: influential with teachers
    • Working class speakers have a restricted code: grammatically simple-few coordination, adjectives, adverbs
    • Middle class speakers have an elaborated code
    • The context free language of school privileges elaborated code
  17. Socio responses to Bernstein
    • Working class speech isn't all that simple
    • Problems come from ignorance of educators and pundits
  18. Schools do make
    Odd linguistic demands on students, teachers ask questions whose answers they already know and students are often expected to answer in full sentences
  19. How to deal with mismatch?
    • Actively teach students the differences between home and school language
    • However parents may not trust these programs
  20. Language of education
    Preferences change depending on society, time and political climate.
  21. Factors encouraging bilingual or home language education
    • Assumption that bilingualism is a goal
    • Less desire for rapid assimilation
    • Assumption that bilingual or home language education speeds acquisition of school skills, literacy and that those skills then transfer into learning in dominant language
  22. Factors encouraging education in dominant language
    • Assumption that proficiency in dominant language is main (only?) goal
    • Desire to rapidly assimilate minority or immigrant groups
    • Assumption that bilingual or home language education slows acquisition of dominant language
  23. Sociolinguistic effects of school
    • To succeed students must adapt to Sociolinguistic requirements of school
    • Students who already speak it have it easier
    • Others need to become bi-dialectal
    • Those who succeed run schools of the future
  24. What are school people like?
    • Schoolteachers are less likely to value local language
    • University bound adolescents have already shed local features
    • Going to university introduces you to new ways of being and speaking
    • University attendees seen as less able in local vernacular
  25. Second language programs often try to teach communicative competence but
    Students don't learn variable forms, vernacular unless they hang out with native speakers
Card Set
14 Ling 204
Chapter 14 and notes
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