12 Ling 204

  1. Covert prestige
    A norm or target that speakers unconsciously orient to, with a sort of hidden positive evaluation that speakers give to other (presumably non-standard) forms. The linguistic equivalent of street cred
  2. Matched guise test
    A test designed to gauge unexpressed language attitudes by asking subjects to rate recorded speakers on a. scale according to traits like social class, intelligence and friendliness, however subjects are actually listening to the same speaker or speakers several times, using different accents or speaking different languages
  3. Solidarity
    Closeness or intimacy or shared status
  4. Likert scale
    A scale often used in questionnaires, usually to let respondents indicate how much they agree with or accept a particular statement
  5. Language myth
    Widely held beliefs about language that are usually not supported by empirical evidence
  6. Language subordination process
    The process where some language varieties are built up and others are put down
  7. Convergence
    Accommodation toward your interlocutors, that is, trying to sound more like the people you're talking to
  8. Discourse
    A society's way of talking about something that reflects underlying assumptions of the dominant group, these tend to become seen as "common sense" and thus are barely noticeable, despaired the influence they have
  9. Habitus
    Socially learned ways of being that are so ingrained that we don't notice them
  10. Critical discourse analysis (CDA)
    The assumption that texts promote or reproduce ideologies and that people can be trained to critically read these texts to be aware of what these texts are doing to them, AKA as critical language awareness
  11. Eye dialect
    The use of non-standard spellings to represent pronunciations of individual words that match those of almost all English speakers
  12. Anti-languages
    The language used by oppositional subcultures within a society, usually used to reverse or twist the standard meaning or words for social or political ends
  13. Political correctness
    A term used by defenders of the social status quo to describe (and disparage) social changes and the people who advocate them
  14. Language attitudes are
    • Often unacknowledged by the people who hold them
    • They underlie variation and language choices
  15. Attitude surveys
    • Overt attitude toward language (or variety)
    • Traits associated with variety
    • Relationship between variety and community
  16. Attitude map
    • Associated with research done by Dennis Preston
    • Give respondents blank maps, ask them to fill in linguistically distinct areas
    • Responses often reflect attitudes toward region as much or more than toward speech
  17. Attitudes toward language features
    • Respondents can easily identify varieties by the features used
    • Use of a single stigmatized feature can lead to speakers being ranked far lower on occupational suitability questionnaires
  18. Claimed use vs. actual use
    • Trudgill shows that men claim to use nonstandard features more than they do and women claim to use less than they do
    • The non standard have covert prestige for speakers
  19. Hallucinating accents
    • People hear what they expect to hear
    • People associate things like Canadian accent with a certain variety even if its the same accent both times under different names
  20. Matched guise test
    • A way to get respondents' unspoken linguistic prejudices
    • Play them multiple recordings but some of them are the same person speaking with a different accent
    • If respondents score the recordings differently its due to the accent
  21. Typical matched guise findings
    • Low status Varity speakers are scored lower, especially on status traits like competence
    • Sometimes low status Varity speakers are scored height on solidarity traits
  22. Problems with matched guise
    • Respondents may be reacting to the perceived mismatch between variety and topic
    • Because the topics need to remain the same to be sure that respondents aren't scoring based on the content of the reading
  23. Real world use of matched guise
    • Researchers phone landlords about an apartment and show that AAE and Hispanic accents are less likely to be told it's an open apartment
    • Proves discrimination
  24. Some language myths
    • Need a flexible tongue
    • Some languages are more beautiful
    • Some languages can't express complex ideas
    • Some languages/varieties have small vocab
    • Eskimo has a hundred words for snow
  25. The standard language
    • Is itself a myth: it suggests that there is a accent less more objective barite of the language
    • Really it's just the variety spoken by the people who get to decide such things
  26. How the standard stays on top: the language subordination process
    • Language is mystified
    • Authority is claimed
    • Misinformation is generated
    • Non-mainstream language is trivialized
    • Comforters are praised
    • Non-conformers are vilified
    • Promises are made
    • Threats are made
  27. Language subordination process step one
    Language is mystified: Your mother tongue is so complex that you need expert guidance to understand it
  28. Language subordination step two
    Authority is claimed: We're the experts-we've studied language and write well
  29. Language subordination step three
    Misinformation is generated: Our language varieties are historically, esthetically or logically better than yours
  30. Language subordination step four
    Non-mainstream language is trivialized: Your language is cute or funny
  31. Language subordination step five
    Comforters are praised: See how much you can accomplish if you conformed too?!
  32. Language subordination step six
    Non-conformers are vilified: see how willfully stupid, deviant or unrepresentative people who talk like you are?!
  33. Language subordination step seven
    Promises are made: Do things our way and employers will take you seriously
  34. Language subordination step eight
    Threats are made: Do things your way and employers won't take you seriously
  35. Language subordination works because
    It's the covert, automated, repeated nature that gives such hegemonic processes their power
  36. Eye dialect is
    The non-standard phonetic spellings of things that even standard speakers don't pronounce as they're spelled
  37. Problems with eye dialect
    It distances the character from the readers who are used to reading standard language
Card Set
12 Ling 204
Chapter 12 and notes