ANSC 301

  1. What is Growth?
    An increase in size without changing compostion.

    Example: Small liver cells still function the same as large liver cells.
  2. Hypertrophy
    Cells growing larger in size
  3. Hyperplasia
    An increase in cell number.

    Usually occurs at a very young age, often before the animal is born.
  4. Accretion
    Increase in material around cells.
  5. Development
    Increase in complexity.

    • Example: 8-cell embryo development. Simple form -> more complex form.
  6. Why is meat so highly desired by consumers?
    • 1. High quality protein
    • 2. Good iron source
    • 3. Good source of B vitamins
  7. What is the feed conversion ADG?

    - should it be high or low?
    Average Daily gain. Growth/Day

    • - High
  8. What is the feed conversion for feed efficiency?

    - should it be high or low?
    lbs. feed/lbs. gain

    • - Low
  9. How can growth and development be improved?
    • 1. Nutrition
    • 2. Genetics
    • 3. Other additives
    • - implants, hormones, vitamins, minerals
  10. List the 4 tissue structures
    • 1. Muscle
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Nervous
    • 4. Epithelium
  11. Describe epithelium tissue
    • - thin layer of cells covering free surfaces in the body.
    • - Simple or stratified
  12. Describe Connective tissue
    -Holds parts of the body together

  13. List the types of connective tissue
    • 1. Blood and lymph
    • 2. Bone and cartilage
    • 3. Adipose (fat)
    • 4. Connective tissue proper
  14. What is contained in connective tissue proper?
    • 1. Collagen
    • 2. Elastin
    • 3. Reticulin
    • 4. Ground Substance
  15. Name the two ingredients in Ground Substance
    • Glycosalaminoglycans and proteoglycans
    • - also known as synovial fluid
  16. Forms of connective tissue
    Dense: bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons

    Lose: organ framework, blood vessels, muscle sheets
  17. Describe ground substance
    • - viscous clear fluid
    • - contains glycoprotein (protein + cartilage)
    • - Contains glycoaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid)
    • -chondroitin sulfates (cartilage and tendons)
  18. What are extracellular fibers?
    • - can be dense or lose
    • - contain collagen and elsastin
    • colagen is most abundant at 20-30% of the bodies protein and influences meat tenderness.
  19. Describe the connective tissue adipose.
    • Loose
    • Contains: fibroblasts and adipocytes
    • Used for body temp regulation
    • Energy storage
    • Endocrine function
    • Protection of major organs
    • Composition: 76-94% lipid, 5-20% water, 1-4% protein
  20. What is a fibroblast?
    Precursor cell for multiple connective tissues
  21. What is an adipocyte?
    Mature fat cells that store triglycerides.
  22. Describe the connective tissue, cartilage.
    • Structural support for other tissues in the body
    • Important for bone formation
    • Chondrocytes are the main cells
    • ECM (ground substance)
  23. What are the types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  24. Most abundant cartilage
    resides on surfaces of bones and joints
    and ventral side of ribs
    Dorsal tips of vertebrae (buttons)
    between vertebrae
    very elastic
    blue/white in color
    Hyaline cartilage
  25. Elastic cartilage
    • Yellow
    • less transparent
    • more flexible than hyaline
    • matrix with branch elastic fibers
    • Epiglotis (hangy down thin in throat) is made of this cartilage
  26. Numerous collagenose fibers
    At ends of tendons-bone connection
    Within capsules and ligaments of joints
  27. Bone connective tissue
    • Most rigid of connective tissues
    • made of cells, fibers, and calcified ECM
    • for support and structure
    • Protection for organs
    • calcium, magnesium, sodium, and other ion storage

  28. Long Bone structure
    • Diaphysis: central shaft. Hollow center with marrow. Compact bone
    • Epiphysis: both ends of diaphysis. Spongy bone inside. compact bone outside.
    • Periosteum: Outside layer coating or membrane. Covers entire bone.
    • Articular Cartilage: thin layer of hyaline. covers joint surfaces.
    • Endosteum: Inner layer of diaphysis shaft.
    • Epiphyseal plate: growth plate. between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Appears as cartilage in young animals, growth plate in mature.
  29. Bone Cell Types
    • Osteocytes: cell cavities within the calcified matrix.
    • Osteoblast: Immature percursor cells. Mature into osteocytes
    • Osteoclast: Mineral regulation. involves resorption (bone loss)
Card Set
ANSC 301
Tissue Structure and Composition