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  1. Simple (closed) Fracture:
    • Bone is broken
    • No external wound is present
  2. Compound (open) Fracture:
    • Bone breaks and punctures through the skin
    • Results in an increased risk of infection
  3. Comminuted Fracture:
    • Fragmented bone
    • Fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces or fragments
    • Can be splintered or crushed
  4. Greenstick Fracture:
    The bone breaks on one side and bends on the other, instead of breaking in 2
  5. Incomplete Fracture:
    Involves a break with only partial disruption in the continuity of the bone….in contrast, to a complete fracture where there’s a full disruption.
  6. When the bone is broken & has injured some internal organExample= rib fracture where lung is pierced
    complicated fracture
  7. involves a fracture line that is diagonal or slanted
    oblique fracture
  8. fracture line is at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the bone
    transverse fracture
  9. a twisting fracture line from a torsional force
    spiral fracture
  10. healing time for UE and LE
    • UE: 6-12 weeks
    • LE: 12-30 weeks
  11. Closed Reduction
  12. Surgical = Four primary types of interventions:
    • ORIF
    • Intermedullary Nailing
    • External Fixation
    • Hemiarthroplasty (Joint Replacement)
  13. external fixation
    • Used to set bones when a cast would not allow proper alignment of the fracture…often used with open fractures
    • Holes are drilled into uninjured areas of bones around the fracture and special bolts or wires are screwed into the holes. Outside the body…a rod with special ball-and-socket joints join the bolts to make a rigid support. General anesthesia used for placement…removal often done without anesthesia
  14. 5 stages of healing
    • Hematoma forms and osteoclasts resorb damaged bone and tissue
    • Formation of granular or fibrocartilage that increases stability of bone fragments
    • Formation of callus (~2-6 weeks)
    • Ossification and formation of a bony union
    • Consolidation and remodeling…bone is reshaped to return to its original form or to perform its intended function (~ 6wks- 1 year)
  15. malunion
    normal time; poor position of healing
  16. longer time to heal; good position…due to infection, poor vascularization, inadequate immobilization
    delayed union
  17. fails to completely heal Due to vascular and tissue damage, poor alignment, stress to fracture site, infection
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