Rehab Tech. Exam 2

  1. what is the number 1 cause for amputations?
    PVD associated with smoking and DM
  2. where would you find a disarticulation amputation?
    at the joint line
  3. where is the disarticulation for the toe?
    MTP joint
  4. what is the resection for a partial foot?
    3rd, 4th, 5th metatarsals
  5. what is symes?
    ankle disarticulation with attachment of heel pad to distal end of tibia
  6. what is a long transtibial?
    • BKA
    • more than 50% of tibial length remains
  7. what is a transtibial?
    between 20-50% of tibial length remain
  8. what is a short transtibial?
    20% or less of tibia remains
  9. what is a knee disarticulation?
    amputation of the knee joint; femur remains intact
  10. what is a long transfemoral?
    • AKA
    • more than 60% of femur remains
  11. what is a transfemoral?
    between 30-60% of femur remains
  12. what is a short transfemoral?
    less than 35% of femur remains
  13. what is a hip disarticulation?
    amputation through the hip joint; pelvis remains intact
  14. what is a hemipelvectomy?
    • resection of the lower half of the pelvis 
    • ischium gone; ilium intact
  15. what is a hemicorporectomy?
    amputation of both lower limbs and pelvis below L4-5
  16. what three things must be considered before the type of amputation is chosen?
    • optimal healing
    • optimal prostesis fit and function
    • stabilization of major muscles
  17. the skin flap on a residual limb must have what three qualitities?
    • nonadherent
    • pliable
    • painless
  18. what is a major concern after an amputation?
    sepsis; infection
  19. what are some of the factors that can influence healing after an amputation?
    • premorbid conditions: DM, cardiac disease, renal disease, 
    • smoking
  20. what are the two phases of the postoperative program after amputation?
    • phase 1: post surgical; from surgery -> fitting of prosthesis
    • phase 2: prosthetic phase; learning to use the permanent replacement limb
  21. what are some of the goals for the postoperative phase after amputation?
    • I bed mob & t/f
    • I with wc and self care
    • demo proper residual limb positioning, bandaging and care
    • mod-min A short distance gait with walker or crutches
  22. what are the post op dressings used mainly for?
    edema control
  23. how would you instruct a patient to wrap their residual limb?
    start at the top and pull down in a diagnal direction and wrap around the back in a figure 8 shape putting more tension at the bottom. Make sure to cover every inch of skin and that there are no wrinkles in the elastic.
  24. how would a patient typically describe their phantom limb pain?
    tingling, burning, itching, pressure, cramping, squeezing, shooting or burning pain
  25. up to ______% of amputees complain of phantom limb pain
  26. what are some other considerations to have when treating amputees?
    • functional status
    • emotional status
    • financial status
    • family support
  27. your treatment with an amputee would include what kind of activities?
    • residual limb care and wrapping
    • shrinkers
    • positioning
    • management of contractures
    • ther ex
  28. what is the purpose of a partial foot prosthesis?
    • restore as much of the foot function as possible 
    • simulate as much of the shape of the missing foot segment
  29. what do transtibial and symes prosthesis have in common?
    both retain the natural knee, motor and sensory function
  30. what are the basic componets of a transtibial and symes prosthesis?
    • foot-ankle assembly
    • rotators
    • shank
    • socket
  31. what is the difference between an articulated and non-articulated prosthesis?
    • the articulated has an ankle joint
    • there is some movement with the nonarticulated, but there is more with the articulated which makes it better to the younger, more active populatin
  32. why is the nonarticulated prosthesis more popular?
    • lighter, more durable, more attractive
    • some even fit high heel shoes
  33. what are the 3 types foot prosthetics?
    • SACH: solid ankle cushion heel
    • SAFE: stationary attachment flexibe endoskeleton
    • carbon copy II: funny skis
  34. which type is the most popular foot prosthetic?
    • SACH
    • comes in a wide array of sizes
    • allows for minimal medal lateral motions
  35. what is the differences between the SACH and SAFE foot?
    the safe allows for more medial lateral motion, is heavier, and more expensive
  36. the foot assembly is chosen with what three things to consider?
    • patients age and lifestyle/activity level
    • weight
    • length of residual limb
  37. what are the rotators?
    • component placed above the prosthetic foot to absorb shock in the transverse plane
    • protects skin from chafing 
    • mostly used by very active individuals
  38. what is the shank?
    sub for the leg
  39. what are the two types of shanks?
    • exoskeletal (crustacean)
    • endoskeletal (modular)
  40. why do symes prothesis not have a shank?
  41. describe an exoskeltal shank
    • made of wood or rigid plastic
    • simulates the look of a lower leg
    • very durable, water proof
    • dont permit for changes in angulation > less prescribed
  42. describe and endoskeletal shank
    • made of central aluminum pylon
    • cosmetic cover to appear like the natural lower leg
    • angulation abilities, more comfort and easier to walk with
  43. what is the socket?
    receptacle where the amputated limb sits
  44. how the socket designed?
    contact all portions of the amputated limb which allows for maximal load distribution
  45. what is a lined socket?
    • foam liner that cushions the residual limb
    • is removable and insulates heat
  46. how would you make an unlined socket more comfortable?
    liner socks and cushion placed at the bottom  of the socket
  47. what are the 5 different ways of suspending the prosthesis?
    • cuffs
    • rubber sleeve: need strong hands and no excessive adipose
    • brim variants: supracondylar suspension
    • thigh corset: increases frontal plane stability, prone to pistioning
    • sheath with distal metal pin: very secure
  48. what is the most commonly used foot with the transfemoral prosthetic?
  49. what are the 4 main features of the knee joint replacement?
    • axis
    • friction mechanism
    • extension aid
    • mechanical stabilizer

    not all knees have all 4
  50. what is the purpose of the knee joint replacement?
    • allows the patient to bend during sitting and kneeling
    • allows for knee flexion during the later stance phase throughout swing phase
  51. what is the knee axis?
    connects the thigh piece to the shank
  52. what is the most common type of knee axis?
  53. what is the friction mechanism of the knee?
    changes the knee swing by modifying the speed of knee motion during swing phase according to the walking speed
  54. what happens if the knee friction is not modulated?
    excessive knee flexion at the beginning of swing phase and vice versa
  55. what is the extension aid of the knee?
    mechanism to assist knee extension during the latter part of swing phase
  56. Do most knee's have stabilizers?
  57. what do the knees depend on for stabilization mostly?
    hip musculature
  58. what is suction suspension?
    atmospheric pressure causes the socket to remain on the thigh.
  59. what are the two grades of suction suspension?
    • total: maximal control
    • partial: wearer uses socks and an external suspension aid
  60. when might you see the patient for physical therapy due to amputation?
    pre amputation (if available) and post amputation
  61. what do you examine the prosthesis for once the patient receives it?
    fit and function in standing and gait
  62. what does the prosthetic training include?
    • socks and sheaths
    • donning and doffing
    • balance
    • gait 
    • transfers, curbs, ramps
    • pt education & skin inspection
  63. what are the three tunics of the blood vessles?
    • tunica adventitia: outer most
    • tunica media: middle
    • tunica intima: inner most
  64. what are the three types of arteries?
    • large elastic
    • medium muscular 
    • small arteries and arterioles
  65. describe large arteries
    • elastic
    • receive blood from the ventricles and pumps it to the medium arteries 
    • ex: aorta
  66. describe medium arteries
    • distributing arteries
    • walls consist of circular smooth muscle
    • have the ablility to vasocontstrict
    • ex: brachial, femoral
  67. describe small arteries and arterioles
    • have narrow lumnia and thick muscular walls
    • have no name and arterioles can only be seen under a microscope
  68. what is the difference between veins and arteries when it comes to their tunics?
    tunica media is thinner in the companion veins
  69. do veins pulsate or spurt blood when severed?
  70. what are the three types of veins?
    • venules
    • medium
    • large
  71. describe the venules
    smallest veins that drain capillary beds that join similar vessles to form small veins that form venous plexuses
  72. describe medium veins
    • accompany medium arteries (which they are named after) and drain venous plexuses
    •  in the limbs that contain venous valves that pump blood towards the heart
  73. describe a large vein
    wide bundles of longtiduinal smooth muscle and well developed tunica adeventita
  74. T/F: there are more arteries than veins. 

    T/F: the walls of veins are thinner than arteries, but veins are bigger than arteries
    • 1: false
    • 2: true
  75. what are simple endothelial tubes connecting the arterial and venous circulation and are arranged in beds/networks
    blood capillaries
  76. what is the purpose of capillary beds?
    allow for the exchange of materials in the extracellular space
  77. what is an "over flow system" for surplus tissue fluid and leaked plasma proteins in the extracellular space that is responsible for removal of debris form cellular breakdown and infection and is essential for survival?
    lymphoid system
  78. what are the components of the lymphatic system?
    lymph plexuses, vessles, nodes, lymphocytes, lymph fluid, lyphoid organs
  79. what are lymphoid plexus?
    lymphatic capillaries that origninate in extracellular space of most tissues that are formed by endothelium and are lacking a basement membrane
  80. describe the lymph vessels
    body wide network of thin walled vessles that contain valves which give lymph the beaded like appearance and they appear everywhere blood capillaries are found
  81. what is lymph fluid
    "blood plasma of the immune system"
  82. what are the lymph nodes?
    small mases of lymphatic tissue along the course of the lymph vessles that filters lymph on its way to the venous system
  83. what are circulating immune cells?
  84. what are the lymph organs?
    • organs that produce lymphocytes
    • thymus, red bone marrow, spleen, tonsils
  85. what is insulin?
    hormone produced in the pancreas that normally maintains balanced blood glucose level
  86. what is IDDM?
    • insulin dependent DM
    • 10% of pop
    • type 1; juvenile
    • absolute deficiency in insulin
  87. what is NIDDM?
    • non insulin dependent DM
    • 90% of pop (80% overweight)
    • type 2; adult
    • resistance to insulin action
  88. DM is the leading cause for what two pathologies?
    blindness and renal failure
  89. DM can cause what other pathologies?
    • heart disease
    • stroke
    • kidney disease
    • blindness
    • amputation
  90. what type of neuropathies can a DM patient develop?
    • sensory
    • motor
    • autonomic
  91. what are the cardinal signs of type 1 DM?
    • excessive urination
    • excessive thirst
    • excessive hunger
    • weight loss
    • fatigue
  92. what are the cardinal signs for type 2 DM?
    • everything the same as type 1 but also with
    • blurred vision
    • cuts and bruises that heal slowly
    • tingling, numbness in and and feet
    • or NO s/s
  93. what are some of the long term effects of DM?
    • vascular problems, retinopathy, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy
    • atherosclerosis
    • impaired resistance to infection
    • neuropathies
    • osteoporosis
    • ulcers
  94. what does the medical management of DM include?
    • insulin administration
    • dietary management 
    • planned exercises
  95. what are some of the safety concerns for DM patients?
    • higher incidence of injuries
    • heal slower
    • poor vision
    • ulcers due to neuopathy
    • hypo/hyper-glycemia
  96. what is insulin shock or too much insulin?
  97. what would a patient that was hypoglycemic present like?
    • c/o feeling "faint"
    • shaky
    • confused
    • clammy skin
  98. what would you do for a patient who was hypoglcemic?
    provide carb snack like fruit juice, honey, hard candy
  99. what also might cause hypoglycemia?
    • overdoes of insulin
    • late or skipped meal
    • over exercise
  100. what is hyperglycemia?
    too little insulin; diabetic comea
  101. what might also cause hyperglycemia?
    skipped or delayed insulin injection or too much food
  102. how would a hyperglycemic patient present?
    dehydrated, intense thirst, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, deep and slow breathing, fruity breath, red and dry skin
  103. what are some of the precautions for working with a diabetic patient?
    • obeserve for s/s of problems
    • be aware of food intake and insulin adminstration prior to treatment
    • at least one hour after meal
    • replace fluid loss adequately 
    • take glucose q 30min
  104. how would instruct a DM patient on foot self care?
    • daily inspection
    • proper footwear
    • minimize trauma (no barefoot, flip flops or hot cement)
    • maintain strength (pen pennies)
  105. what are some other things you would want to educate your DM patient on?
    • burn precautions with local heat
    • any heat accelerates the rate of insulin absorption; no heat before 15 min after insulin
  106. what is young-old?
  107. what is middle old?
  108. what is oldest old?
  109. the branch of medicine that treats all problems perculiar to old age and the aging, including the problems of senescence and senility
  110. the scientific study of the problems of aging in all their aspects; clinical, biological, historical, and sociological
  111. the gradual changes in the structure of any organism that occur with the passage of time that do not result form disease or other gross accidents and eventually lead to the increased probability of death
  112. older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or tother other infirmity; those who require help
    frail elders
  113. prejudice or discrimination against people of a particular age and especially older adults
  114. the observed age at death of an indvidual
    life span
  115. the highest documented age was ______ and her name was?
    • 122
    • Mme. Jeanne Calment of Aries France
  116. the number of years based on stastical averages that a given person of a secific age or class may reasonably expect to continue living; the average number of years from birth that an individual can expect to live
    life expectancy
  117. a diseased condition or state; the incidence or prevelance of disease or of all diseases in a population, the relative incidence of disease
  118. the quality or state of being mortal; death the number of deaths in a given time or place; the proportion of deaths to population
  119. the presence of coexisting or additional diseases with reference to an additional diagnosis with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study.
  120. what theory believes that aging follows a biological timetable, perhaps a continuation of the one that regulates childhood growth and development
    programmed theories
  121. what theory believes that environmental assaults to our systems gradually cause things to go wrong.
    damage or error theories
  122. aging causes the body to respond differently to what?
    • disease
    • medications
    • changes in the environment
  123. what are some of the concerns with aging?
    • co-morbidities
    • polypharmacy
    • living longer with cardiac disease, DM or other chronic disease
    • cognitive changes
  124. on average, a 75 y/o has ____ chronic medical conditions and take ____ Rx.
    • 3
    • 5
  125. what are some of the age related changes that can affect the nurtiritinal status of your patient?
    • decreased saliva
    • poor dentation
    • decrements of taste and olfaction
    • gastromucosal atrophy
    • reduced intestional mobility
  126. what is sarcopenia?
    age related loss of lean muscle mass
  127. why is obesity common in the older adult?
    • decreased activity, medication, poor diet
    • can also be impacted by arthritis, HTN, heart disease, and DM
  128. what type of diet should the older adult consume?
    nutrient rich, higher quality diet
  129. how can medications affect the nutritional status of the older adult?
    • impact on appetite
    • absorption
    • metabolism
    • excretion of nutrients
  130. what are some of the cognitive changes the older adult may have to face?
    • problem solving declines with age, may be due to educational level and fluid intelligence
    • encoding and retrieval problems cause memory difficulties 
    • short term memory stores seem to have a limited capacity whereas long term memory stores have unlimited capacity
  131. what are the major risk factors for cognitive changes in the older adult?
    • age
    • genetics
    • family history
    • lifestyle
  132. how can we slow down the cognitive decline in older adults?
    • nutrition and supplemntation
    • -15-20% fat diet
    • vitamin E, DHA, ginkgo,
    • Stress management 
  133. how can we maintain cognitive abilites in the older adult?
    • exercise:ncreases blood flow and releases endorphins
    • perscriptions 
    • brain exercise: neuorplasticity
  134. what can we do to improve the cognitive performance of a older patient?
    • orderly environment
    • simple, concrete instructions 
    • appropriate rate
    • meaningful tasks 
    • ample time for practice and repetition
  135. T/F: sudden loss of mental acuity may be due to acute illness, infection, MI, or CVA
  136. what are some of the condtions that can cause reversible dementia?
    • drug reactions
    • dehydration
    • depression
    • infections
    • malnutrition 
    • post trauma/surgery
  137. what are some of the things you would see if your patient was experenceing a congnitive decline?
    • changes in sensory perception
    • loss of memory
    • ADL's performed more slowly
    • learning of new skills is slower
  138. what are some of the psychosocial aspects of aging?
    • depression in many forms 
    • social isolation
  139. what are some of the age related musculoskeletal changes?
    • joint capsules, ligaments, tendons lose elasticity 
    • joint cartilage loses water, wears down
    • joints lose ROM, flexors particulary shorten 
    • pain may hamper mobility 
    • osteoporosis risks
  140. what are balance issues due to with the older adult?
    • decreased vision, proprioception, ROM and strength
    • longer reaction time
    • disease related impairments
  141. what are some of the tests you might do to access the patients balance?
    • berg
    • tug
    • tinetti
  142. what is a major cause for accidental deaths among the elderly?
  143. T/F: not all falls are preventable
  144. what are some of the risk factors for falls among the elderly?
    • balance problems, vestibular dysfuntion
    • decreased hearing and vision
    • proprioceptive loss
    • depression
    • neurological (dementia, CVA)
    • foot problems; shoe problems 
    • medications 
    • anxiety due to previous falls 
    • inactivity 
    • UI
  145. what is a metabolic disease that results in decreased bone mass causing weakened bone and increased susceptibility to fracture
  146. what are the 2 types of osteoporosis?
    • primary: idopathic, post-menopausal, senile
    • secondary: underlying disease (CA, alcoholoism) or medication use (long term corticosteroid use; autoimmune)
  147. what are some of the risk factors for osteoporois?
    • age
    • menopause
    • genetic
    • little white women
    • inactivity
    • tobacco or alcohol use
    • depression
  148. what are some of the dietary risk factors for osteoporosis?
    • deficient Ca, vitamind D, magnesium 
    • high fat diets
    • high sugar intake
    • high intake of Ca deficient beverages (soda, coffee)
    • eating disorders
    • crash diets
  149. what are some of the comorbidities that would increase the risk of osteoporosis?
    • renal disease
    • cancer
    • diabetes
    • endocrine
  150. waht is bone mineral density testing done for?
  151. what are some of the treatment options for osteoporosis?
    meds, hormone replacement, calcitonins, fall prevention and education, exercise and proper nutrition
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Rehab Tech. Exam 2
exam 2