10 Psy 101

  1. Memory
    The ability to stores and retrieve information over time
  2. Encoding
    The process of transforming what we perceive, think or feel into an enduring memory
  3. Storage
    The process of maintaining information in memory over tiem
  4. Retrieval
    The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
  5. How is making a memory like following a recipe?
    Its combining info we already have with the new info. It starts off with a recipe and begins to improvise. The memories are constructed
  6. Semantic encoding
    The process of relating new info in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory
  7. Visual imagery encoding
    The process of storing new info by converting it into mental pictures
  8. Organizational encoding
    The process of categorizing info according to the relationships among a series of items
  9. Which is most effective, semantic, rhyme, or visual judgment and why?
    Semantic because it relates to information already stored in the brain
  10. How does visual encoding influence memory?
    • It does the same thing as semantic encoding does (draw info the brain has already stored)
    • It creates a verbal and visual placeholder
  11. Why might mentally organizing the material for an exam enhance your retrieval of that material?
    Because the categories create a reminder of the things you need to memorize
  12. Semantic encoding, visual imagery encoding and organizational encoding all
    Increase memory, but they use different parts of the brain to accomplish that
  13. EncodingĀ is theĀ process of
    Transforming the info our senses take in into lasting memory
  14. Most instances of spectacular memory performance
    Reflect the skillful use of encoding strategies rather than so called photographic memory.
  15. Memory is influenced by
    The type of encoding we perform regardless of whether we consciously intend to remember an event or not
  16. A particularly effective method for increasing subsequent recall is
    • Encoding info with respect to its survival value
    • Perhaps because our memory systems have evolved in a way that allows us to remember especially well info that is relevant to our survival
  17. Sensory memory
    A type of storage that holds sensory info for a few seconds or less
  18. Iconic memory
    A fast decaying store of visual info
  19. Echoic memory
    A fast decaying store of auditory info
  20. Short-term memory
    A type of storage that holds nonsensory info for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
  21. Rehearsal
    The process of keeping info in short term memory by mentally repeating it
  22. Chunking
    Combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short term memory
  23. Working memory
    Active maintenance of info in short term storage
  24. How long is info held in iconic and Echoic memory before it decays?
    • Iconic memories decay in about one second
    • Echoic memories decay in about 5 seconds
  25. Why is it helpful to repeat a telephone number you're trying to remember?
    Because rehearsal keeps the information in short term memory for another 15-20 seconds
  26. Long term memory
    A type of storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks or years
  27. Anterograde amnesia
    The inability to transfer new info from the short term store into the long term store
  28. Retrograde amnesia
    The inability to retrieve info that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or surgery
  29. Consolidation
    The process by which memories become stable in the brain
  30. Reconsolidation
    Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them toe become consolidated again
  31. Long term potentiation (LTP)
    A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens that connection making further communication easier
  32. How does building a memory produce a physical change in the nervous system?
    It strengthens the communication across the synapse between the neurons
  33. When is a consolidated memory vulnerable to disruption
    Every time a memory is retrieved it is vulnerable to disruption
  34. Retrieval cue
    External information that is associated with stored info and helps bring it to mind
  35. Encoding specificity principle
    The idea that retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which info was initially encoded
  36. State-dependent retrieval
    The tendency for info to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
  37. Transfer-appropriate processing
    The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situation match
  38. There are several types of memory storage
    • Sensory memory: Info for a second or two
    • Short term or working memory: retains info for 15-20 seconds
    • Long term memory: Stores info anywhere from minutes to years or decades
  39. Memory storage depends on changes in
    Synapses and long term potentiation (LTP) increases synaptic connections
  40. Retrieval induced forgetting
    A process where retrieving an item from long term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
  41. Should students spend more time testing themselves on material (retrieval) or studying it over and over?
  42. How can retrieval induced forgetting occur during conversations?
    A speaker talks about select parts of a memory and neglects other aspects.
  43. How is brain activity different when trying to recall vs successfully recalling?
    • Successful recalling shows activity in the hippocampal region
    • Trying to recall causes the left frontal lobe to show heightened activity
  44. Whether we remember a past experience depends on
    Whether retrieval cues are available to trigger recall.
  45. Retrieval cues are effective when
    They are given in the same context as when we encoded an experience. Moods and inner states can also serve as retrieval cues
  46. Retrieving info from memory has
    Consequences for later retrieval. Retrieval improves subsequent memory of the retrieved info, as exemplified by the beneficial effect of testing on later recall
  47. Retrieval can impair
    Subsequent remembering of related info that is not retrieved. It can also change subsequent remembering when new info is associated with vivid recollections
  48. Retrieval can be separated into
    The effort we make while trying to remember what happened in the past and the successful recovery of store info.
  49. Explicit memory
    The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
  50. Implicit memory
    The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
  51. Procedural memory
    The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
  52. Priming
    An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
  53. What type of memory is it when you just know how to do something?
    Implicit memory
  54. How does priming make memory more efficient?
    Its an implicit thing that makes it easier to access the stored memories
  55. Semantic memory
    A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
  56. Episodic memory
    The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
  57. What form of memory uses mental time travel?
    Episodic memory
  58. How does episodic memory help us imagine out futures?
    It is a flexible system that allows us to recombine elements of past experience in new ways so that we can mentally try out different versions of what might happen
  59. Why does a collaborative group typically recall fewer items than a nominal group?
    • People are more prone to social loafing
    • More likely The retrieval methods used by others throws people off.
  60. People who have amnesia are
    Able to taint implicit memory, including procedural memory and priming, but they lack explicit memory
  61. Episodic memory is the collection of
    Personal experiences from a particular time and place; it allows us both to recollect the past and imagine the future
  62. Semantic memory is a
    Networked, general, impersonal knowledge of facts, associations and concepts
  63. Collaborative memory refers to
    Remembering in groups. It can impair and enhance memory by exposing people to new info and helping to correct errors
  64. Long term memory consists of several different forms
    • Explicit memory: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
    • Implicit memory: Unconscious influences of past experiences on later behavior and performance like procedural memory and priming
    • Procedural memory: Involves acquisition of skills as a result of practice
    • Priming: A change in the ability to recognize or identify an object or word as the result of past exposure
Card Set
10 Psy 101
Notes from class and pages 221-248