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  1. About __% of all deaths in the United States are attributed to cardiovascular disease
  2. More than __ of adults have some form of disease of the heart and blood vessels
  3. Examples of CVD are:
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Stroke
    • Atherosclerosis
    • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
    • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    • Peripheral Vascular Disease
    • Congenital Heart Disease
    • Rheumatic Disease
  4. ________ is a condition in which a blood vessel that feeds the brain ruptures or is clogged, disrupting blood flow to the brain
  5. __________ is the most significant contributor to mental/physical disability and is the third leading cause of death in the United States
  6. __________ is another term for heart attack
    Myocardial Infarction
  7. _______________ is the leading cause of death in the United States
    Coronary Heart Disease
  8. Medical factors that lower risk of CHD are:
    • Normal blood pressure (less than 120/80mmhg)
    • smoking less or cessation
    • HDL cholesterol greater than 40mg/dL
    • LDL cholesterol less than 100mg/dL
  9. Physical activity and aerobic exercise:
    • Increase Cardiorespiratory endurance
    • control BP
    • reduce body fat
    • lower blood lipids and improve HDL
    • prevent/control diabetes
    • decrease low grade inflammation
    • increase and maintain good heart function
  10. The _______________ measures the hearts function
    Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
  11. ________ ECG shows tolerance of the heart to increased physical activity
  12. _________ ECG monitors the return of the hearts activity to normal conditions
  13. Warning signs of heart attack (myocardial infarction) are:
    • chest pain (angina)
    • pain or discomfort between shoulders, neck, or arms
    • SoB (shortness of breath)
  14. Heart attack signs in women: (HEPPP)
    • Hot
    • Exhausted
    • Pain
    • Pale
    • Puke
  15. Normal ECG:
    P wave is
    Atrial depolorization
  16. Normal ECG:
    QRS complex is
    Ventricular depolorization
  17. Normal ECG:
    T wave is
    Ventricular repolarization
  18. Typical symptoms of heart attack, such as angina pectoris, do not occur until the arteries are about ___% blocked
  19. __________ is a hormone secreted by the pancreas; essential for proper metabolism of blood glucose (sugar) and maintenance of blood glucose levels
  20. Insulin _________ is the inability of cells to respond appropriately to insulin
  21. Type __ diabetes is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, known as juvenile diabetes
    Type I Diabetes
  22. Type ___ diabetes is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), a condition in which insulin is not processed properly; also known as adult onset diabetes
    Type II diabetes
  23. _____________ protein is a protein whose blood level increases with inflammation, at times hidden deep within the body; elevation of this protein is an indicator of potential cardiovascular events
    C-reactive protein
  24. ____________ is an amino acid that, when allowed to accumulate in the blood, may lead to plaque formation and blockage of arteries
  25. Homocysteine  levels:
    • <9.0    Desirable
    • 9-12    Mild elevation
    • 13-15  Elevated
    • >15     Extreme elevation
  26. Fats formed by glycerol and three fatty acids
  27. __________ cholesterol transport is a process in which HDL molecules attract cholesterol and carry it to the liver, where it is changed to bile and eventually excreted in the stool
    Reverse cholesterol transport
  28. _____________ transport triglycerides
  29. Blood lipids consist of:
    triglycerides and cholesterol
  30. _____________ is  cholesterol transporting molecules in the blood (good cholesterol) that helps clear cholesterol from the blood
    HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
  31. __________  are cholesterol transporting molecules in the blood (bad cholesterol) that tend to increase blood cholesterol
    LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
  32. The FDA allows food manufacturers to label any product having less than half a gram of ______ fat per serving as zero
  33. __________ foods are any food that has been chemically altered from its natural state through additives such as flavors
    Processed foods
  34. A high energy compound that the body uses for immediate energy
    ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate)
  35. Optimal LDL levels should be below:
  36. Optimal HDL levels are:
    greater than 40mg/dL
  37. Max HR equation:
    206.9 -(age in years x .67)
  38. List three benefits of aerobic exercise
    • reduction in blood lipids
    • weight management
    • prevent/manage diabetes
    • increase cardiorespiratory endurance
    • lower BP
    • increase VO2 max
    • decrease RHR
    • increase in mitochondria
  39. Obesity is a BMI of greater than ___%
  40. In order to make any gains/improvements you MUST _________ muscles
  41. cholesterol lowering medications
    Statins (Lipitor)
  42. A condition in which arteries that supply oxygen to the heart muscle are narrowed by fatty deposits
    Coronary Heart Disease
  43. To lose a pound and a half in a week a person must burn_____ calories per day
  44. _________ is a training concept holding that genetics plays a major role in individual responses to exercise training and these differences must be considered when designing an exercise program
  45. List the five risk factors for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome:
    • Blood pressure (greater than 135/88mmhg)
    • Fasting blood glucose >100
    • Abdominal Obesity (men 40 inches or greater/ women 35 inches or greater) 
    • Triglyceride >150mg/dL
    • HDL cholesterol 40mg/dL
  46. List the three energy pathways in which ATP is generated:
    • Immediate: Creatine Phosphate (less than 20 sec)
    • Anaerobic: Glycolosis (30 sec-2min)
    • Aerobic: Crebbs cycle & ETC (longer than 2 mins/prolonged endurance)
  47. Air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken up and CO2 is released from the blood are the ___________
  48. FITT-VP
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Type
    • Time
    • Volume
    • Progression
  49. VO2 Max is measured in
    ml per Kg per minute
  50. Three components of VO2 Max
    • HR (Heart rate)
    • SV (stroke volume)
    • Amount of Oxygen removed from the blood
Card Set
CH10 Study Cards
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