# Chapter 6 (Test 3) (Stdy more on Solubility and Ask 'bout it)

 1 atm 760 torr or mm of Hg14.7 PSI Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) 0°C and 1 atm Henry's Law Solubility of a Gas and PressureThe solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the liquid↑ in pressure is ↑ in solubility of a gas Gay-Lussac's Law Pressure and TemperatureFor a sample of gas with a constant volume, pressure and temperature are directly related↓ Temp will ↓ PressureP1/T1 = P2/T2 MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15) Boyle's Law Volume of a Gas and PressureGas is proportional to the Pressure when temp remains constant↑ V of Gas as ↓ in PressureP1V1 = P2V2 when T1 = T2 Charles Law Temp and Volume↑ in Temp will ↑ VolumeV1/T1 = V2/T2 when P1 = P2 MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15) Combine Gas Law P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 MAKE SURE TO CONVERT TO K (C° + 273.15) Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressure of its componentsPartial pressure of gas in a mixture is the pressure that gas would exert aloneMixture of Air (N2 = 78.0%, O2 = 21.1% and 0.9% other)Sea lvl: P1 = 760 Torr = PN2 + PO2 + POtherSea lvl: 593 Torr + 160 Torr + 7 Torr = 760 Torr Mt. Everest: P1 = 200 = PN2 + PO2 + POtherMt. Everest: 156 Torr + 42 Torr + 2 Torr = 200 Torr Why do long distant runners train at high altitude? So their bodies can produce more hemoglobin Why do climbers bring O equipment? Because of he lower pressure, there is less O so equipment must be brought Mixture A combination of 2 or more pure substances Heterogenous Mixture - not evenly distributed Homogeneous Mixtures - uniformly distributed Solvent The component in solution present in greatest amountUsually Water Solutes The component dissolved in solutionPotassium, NaCl, etc in blood The formation of solutions, requires that solute particles have what two important characteristics? They must be about the same size as the solvent molecules They must be able to interact with the solvent molecules through non-covalent interactions"Like Dissolves Like" Solubility The amount of solute that will dissolve in a give amount of solvent at a given tempHow temp affects? Electrolytes Compounds that dissolve in water to form ions Pure Substance Consists of just one element of compound(e.g. Element: Hg, Ag, O | Compound: Water, NaCl, Sucrose) Hydrophilic Compounds that are soluble in waterSimple sugars and all AA Hydrophobic Compounds that are insoluble in waterFatty Acids Amphipathic Compounds that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.Soap and Shampoo Prodrugs Inactive compounds that are converted to fully active drugs in the body Concentration Amount of Solute dissolved in Solvent%(w/v)  (g/L) Molarity/Concentration/ppt,ppm,ppb/ Dilution Look in binder for practice Diffusion Substances (Solutes) that move from areas of higher concentration to those of lower concentration Osmosis Movement of water (Solvent) across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of high solute concentration Semipermeable Membrane Barriers to diffusion because they allow solvents, but not all solutes to pass through Isotonic Solution Equal ConcentrationsFlow of water in and out is equal0.95% Saline Solution5.5% Glucose Solution Hypotonic Solution Less ConcentratedWater will flow out of this solutionCause Hemolysis to RBC0.8% Saline Solution4.0% Glucose Solution Hypertonic Solution More ConcentratedWater will flow into this solutionCause Crenation to RBC5% Saline Solution10% Glucose Solution Hemodialysis Is used to cleanse the blood of patients whose kidneys malfunction. Blood is diverted from the body and pumped through a long cellophane dialysis tube suspended in an isotonic solution formulated to contain many of the same components as blood plasma. Small waste materials such as urea pass through the dialysis  membrane from the blood to the solution side where they are washed away Why can't some solutes such as protein's cannot move out or into cells? Reverse Osmosis - Desalination of Sea Water Sea water has a higher concentration of solutes (Na+, Cl-, and others) than fresh water. If these two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane, osmosis will move water from the fresh side to the sea water side. Osmotic Pressure The amount of external pressure applied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecule across a semipermeable membrane. Authorbonus188 ID309959 Card SetChapter 6 (Test 3) (Stdy more on Solubility and Ask 'bout it) DescriptionChemistry Updated2015-10-21T08:44:45Z Show Answers