eco and evo

  1. KT extinction
    • boundary between the Cretaceous (K) and Tertiary (T) time periods
    • dinosaurs disappeared
    • 65 mya
    • allowed mammals to come about
  2. what are parts of mammal's teeth
    • incisors to nimble
    • premolars to tear apart
    • molars to grind food down
    • canines to dig into food
  3. smilodon
    • sabor-toothed tiger
    • largest canines
    • allowed prey to die right away from hole in neck
  4. first bite
    • 530 mya
    • evidence in fossils of trilobites
    • anomalocaris was the jaw that bit into them
  5. Anomalocaris
    • strange shrimp
    • monster during Cambrian
    • earliest known form of jaw
    • small circle for mouth, around were jagged teeth
  6. driving force of evolution?
    • predation
    • cambrian time was to evolve or die, kill or be killed
  7. first to have backbone
    • fish 
    • 430mya
    • ancestor of all vertebrates, no jaws, swimming to their food
    • gills whose arches made into jaws
  8. placodermi
    • first jawed fish
    • (dunkleosteus: no teeth but jaws act like teeth, scissor like action by meeting of plates
    • 4 pont system allow fish to open mouth wide and shut tight
    • most ferocious bite)
  9. sharks
    • replaced dunkleosteus
    • 430 mya (been around longer than any other vertebrate alive today)
    • shark's body is built for speed, jaws in back to reduce drag
    • 5 step shark bite (smooth profile)
    • steak knife shaped teeth, regenerate, top predator for 300
  10. tetrapod
    • jaws were more reptile like than fish
    • biting and suck (whereas fish for the most part just suck)
    • made the move on land
    • had skeleton, gills, fins (protolimbs)
  11. characteristics of fish
    • non-tetrapod vertebrate
    • gills for respiration
    • fins for locomotion
    • body covered with scales
    • mate in water
    • 500-558mya
  12. amphioxus
    • tentacles out trying to grab prey
    • notochord, no full developed skeleton
    • moves out of column to swim
  13. lamprey, sharks& rays, ray-finned fishes and lobe finned fishes, which are closest related
    • lobe-finned fishes and ray finned fishes
    • then sharks
    • then lamprey
  14. hagfish
    slime released to slip away from predator, slime clogs gills (predator can die)
  15. lobe finned fishes
    gives rise to tetrapods
  16. ray finned fishes
    bony fishes
  17. sharks and rays
    jaws, cartilaginous fishes with no skeleton
  18. lamprey
    • jawless fishes
    • parasitize other hosts
    • external gill slits
    • very awesome mouth
  19. ostracoderm
    • armored fishes, 
    • huge mouth
    • hard teeth
  20. placoderms
    • first jaws
    • internal development of babies, armor limited to head for movement
    • jaws came from inner gills arch, allow the closing of the mouth (later evolved ability to suck on fish or protrude jaws out)
  21. cartilaginous fishes
    skate, stingray and sharks
  22. sting rays
    • tails, babies develop inside
    • spiracles (behind the eyes to help breathe) 
    • gills are on the bottom so can't breath if on the floor
  23. skates
    lay eggs outside
  24. biggest bony fish
    mola mola
  25. difference between scales on sharks, rays and skates
    rays and skates have less scales, but same scales as sharks
  26. coelacanth
    • bony fishes, 2 extinct species, very rare
    • most threatened order of animals on earth 
    • move as if its walking through water
    • 3 lobed tail (found in no other living creature on earth)
  27. sergent fish
    • primitive
    • didn't change much since it first evolved
    • armor on them
    • live in rivers
  28. aneyad
    • primitive fish
    • found just in North America
    • used to live everywhere
  29. ray finned fishes
    more advanced
  30. teleostei
    • means complete bone, one of three infraclasses in ray fined fishes
    • included clupeiformes
    • salmoniformes
    • atheriniforms
    • perciformes
  31. acanthopterygii
    • spiny finned one (class of ray finned fishes, bony class)
    • atheriniformes
    • perciformes
  32. how many species of fishes today?
    how many live in freshwater, how many in seawater
    • 32,000 species
    • 43% freshwater
    • 56% seawater
    • 1% both
  33. salmon migration
    • born in freshwater
    • move to saltwater (6-12 months) which means their physiology has to change (form kidneys and gills)
    • perform better when they are further away and are at higher temperature
    • migrate earlier if temp changes
  34. Europrean larvae eel
    • gaping mouth
    • get big before metamorphosis into eel
    • two species (American and European), all mate in Sargasso sea)
    • can swim for about a year without eating, babies go back to America or Europe
  35. schooling
    mechanical advantage: diamond formation, vortices ar ein your favor, use less energy, swim easier
  36. cleaners
    clean parasites off of other fishes, hosts change color so they know its okay to come and clean
  37. kalmijn experiment 1971
    • sharks prefer to find prey using their electrical signal
    • 1. flounder in tank, fish found it and ate it
    • 2. flounder inside box, box was open, flow was going through the box, shark went for the fish
    • 3. box was open, shark went in could smell the fish
    • 4. sealed box, no electric signal, shark ignored the fish
    • 5. two electrodes in sediment and shark went for both of them
    • 6. dead fish outside (no signal), electrode with sediment inside shark went after the electrode.
  38. organ on fish tail
    • modified muscle (gives off a magnetic field) anything distorting the magnetic field could be sensed by the fish
    • fish gave out specific signals to mate, recognize each other
    • catfish can smell really well (olympic pool)
  39. amphibiians
    lungs needed to invade land, using fleshy fins like legs (moves around with), limb like fins to push to land, moist skin
  40. biggest of all amphibians
    • salamander
    • has lungs but never leaves water
    • dens in natural and manmade breeding dens
    • no protective shells on eggs, need to keep eggs moist
    • need to lay eggs in water
    • beats tails to impress females, lays sperm, female picks it up, need to lay eggs in water (indirect development)
  41. cicilian
    • no legs, stays in nest chamber to protect young, drinks mother's secretions, the babies also has teeth
    • mom regrows her skin every three days to provide young with meal
  42. tadpoles
    • have gills that allow them to get oxygen from water but they also have legs to move on land
    • food made them move to land
  43. difference between frog and toad
    toad has less moist skin
  44. what does most successful amphibians have?
    developed legs
  45. golden frog
    • waves to keep away rival
    • poison on skin
  46. red eyed tree frog
    camouflage abilities, eggs laid over water, where sometime wasps can get to them
  47. how does females judge male frogs
    by the frequency and intensity of their calls (frogs call with their cheeks)
  48. bullfrog
    big as a football
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eco and evo
exam 2