Philosophy 2 Final

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  1. Ethical Subjectivism
    • The simplest form of relativism.
    • There are no objective or universal moral truths.
    • Morality is just a matter of personal feeling or opinion
    • Sincerely feeling or believing that x is right makes it right
  2. Ethical Skepticism
    No moral truths can be proved. There can be no certainty
  3. Emotivism
    • There are no moral truths. Moral judgments are only expressions of feelings or opinions.
    • They only convey and invoke emotion
  4. jean-Jacques Rousseaus Version of ES
    • Romantic Sentimentalism/
    • Humans are by nature good
  5. Cultural relativism
    NO trans cultural universal morals
  6. Sociological Relativism
    A theory in descriptive, not philosophical, ethics
  7. Social Darwinism
    A culture that has the morals they do because they contributed to survival
  8. Divine Command Theory
    • An act is right if god approves/commands it, wrong if he disapproves/forbids it
    • There are no independent/universal moral standards by which to judge gods commands
  9. Philosophy
    • A rational pursuit of comprehensive and systematic knowledge about our world. 
    • Regarding conceptual and theoretical, not empirical, matters
  10. Autonomous Moral Agent
    An independent self governing thinker
  11. Metaphysics
    Theory of Reality
  12. Epistemology
    Theory of Knowledge
  13. Axiology
    Theory of Value
  14. Aesthetics
    One part of axiology
  15. Ethics/Moral Philosphy
    • The sutdy of the values and guidelines by which we live and the justification of there values and guidelines.
    • Part of aaxiology
  16. Levels or Spheres of Ethics
    • Personal Ethics
    • Inter-Personal Ethics
    • Social Ethics
    • Environmental Ethics
  17. Two Great Philosophical Issues
    • Rationalism
    • Empiricism
  18. Rationalism
    More Knowledge comes through reason
  19. Empiricism
    Most Knowledge comes through the physical sense
  20. 2 Main Types of Moral Theory
    • Noncognitivist Theories
    • Cognitivist Theories
  21. Non-Cognitive Theories
    • Moral statements that are neither true not false.
    • They can't be scientifically verified and are therefore meaningless.
    • So there is no moral knowledge
  22. Logical Empiricism
    • Only the statements that are empirically or scientifically verified/falsified are meaningful.
    • Problem: Apply the theory to itself and because you can't prove it scientifically then the theory is meaningless
  23. Cognitivist Theories
    There are moral truths
  24. Relativist Theories
    • Morality is different for different people. 
    • There are no independent moral values.
    • Morality is relative to:
    • Subjectivism
    • Cultural Relativism
    • Divine Command Theory
  25. Universalist Theories
    There are moral truths to be discovered. There are universal moral Values
  26. Ethical Egoism
    • Pursue self interest
    • Self always comes first
  27. Natural Law Ethics
    Moral law = natural law
  28. Utilitarianism
    Value pleasure, disvalue pain
  29. Deontology
    • Study of duty
    • Kant
  30. Rights Ethics
    Born/God given
  31. Virtue ethics
    Character, not born with characters fully formed, they need to be shaped
  32. Two Basic Parts of Ethics
    • Theoretical Ethics
    • Prescriptive Ethics
  33. Theoretical Ethics (Meta-Ethics)
    Concerned with appraising the logical foundations and internal consistency of ethical systems
  34. The Theoretical Ethics Questions
    • The meaning of key concepts like right/wrong, good/bad etc.
    • Whether there is a correct method for answering moral questions
  35. Prescriptive Ethics
    • Normative ethics.
    • The determination of correct moral principles
  36. Prescriptive Ethics Claims and Questions
    • Descriptive
    • Prescriptive (normative)
  37. Descriptive
    Empirical or scientific claims/questions about what was, is, or will be the case
  38. Prescriptive (Normative)
    • About what ought/ought not be done
    • About what is im/permissible, a duty, virtue etc.
  39. Moral Values
    • Conceptions of how things ought to be with respect to what is right/wrong, good/bad in human actions.
    • They are expressed in moral principles
  40. Moral Principles
    • Can't just be a matter of rules we need to:
    • explain why we have the rules we do
    • to resolve conflicts between us
    • to ID/justify legitimate exceptions to rules
  41. Aquinas Natural Law Theory
    • Morality is grounded in human nature.
    • God made us rational in his image
    • Only by employing reasons do we discern right from wrong
  42. Teleological NLT
    Natural/Moral law is our way of working towards or participating in the vision
  43. Aquinas Hierarchy of 4 types of Laws
    • Eternal
    • Divine
    • Natural = moral
    • Human
  44. Natural Law Principles
    • Do good and avoid evil
    • The golden rule
    • Respect for others
    • Human survival is good
  45. Normative Moral Rules
    Contain specific content and guidelines for actions. Using reason we derive specific rules from natural laws
  46. Civil Disobedience
    Refusal to obey certain laws or policies in order to change them
  47. Thoreaus Conditions for Permissible Civil Disobedience
    • Use only moral and nonviolent means
    • Try legal change first
    • Act openly and publicly
    • Be willing to accept the consequences
  48. Ghandi
    Satyagraha = CD based on passive resistance and non-cooperation
  49. Conscience
    • Means with knowledge
    • This is active and critical; Involves reason and feelings.
    • has affective and cognitive elements
    • Heredity/Biological Factors
    • learning/Environmental Factors
    • Conscious moral direction
  51. Affective Conscience
    • Moral sentiments are emotions that move us to feel.
    • Sympathy
    • Helpers High
    • Moral Outrage
    • Shame
    • Guilt
  52. Cognitive Conscience
    • Making judgments about what we ought to do .
    • Needed to guide/correct uncritical moral sentiments
  53. Weakness of the Will
    • Putting non moral values about the moral.
    • Giving into temptation
  54. Look at chapter 6 to see if everything below weakness of the will is relevant
  55. Ethical Egoism
    The only universal moral principle is: Do what is in your own best (rational) self-intrest
  56. Egotism
    Being arrogant, boastful, self-centered, inconsiderate
  57. Subjectivism
    A matter of action on one's desires of feelings. NOT Rational
  58. Ayn Rand's Objectivist Ethics
    • There is no other source of values than objective reality. Each person is in pursuit of his own self-interest.
    • Helping others is morally justified only when we can expect something similar in return
  59. Utilitarianism
    Is made up from two parts the consequentialist part and the teleological part
  60. Consequentialist part of Utilitarianism
    • Actions are not intrinsically right/wrong.
    • The morality of an act depends on its consequences.
  61. Teleological Utilitarianism
    • The aim is the greatest net happiness for all.
    • The actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they don't
  62. Are intentions morally relevant in Utilitarianism?
    • Not to the right or wrongess of an act but they do indicate the moral character of the agent.
    • People with good intentions are more likely to do good acts.
  63. Act Utilitaianism
    Any act that maximized happiness is right
  64. Rule Utilitarianism
    • Only acts licensed by rules which maximize happiness are right. 
    • Follow the rule, even if doing so doesn't provide maximum happiness in a given case.
  65. Mo Tzu on Utilitarianism
    • Adopted the basic Confucian principle of jen (love)
    • The good sociert is achieved by actively seeking and promotion the good of the many.
    • Do no harm and promote the happiness of others
  66. Jeremy Bentham
    • Utilitarian
    • Inspired by Epicurus and Hume
    • Held that certain character traits are virtues cuz of their utility.
    • If a policy produces more pleasure than pain, then it is good and justified. (based on hedon)
  67. Jeremy Bentham Utility criteria
    Utility alone is the criterion of good law and political obligation
  68. The Utilitarian (hedonic) Calculus
    • Hedon - A unit of happiness
    • Made by Jeremy Bentham in order to calculate the utility of actions
  69. John Stuart Mill
    • Is a Utilitarian
    • Stressed the importance of education in overcoming ignorance and superstition.
    • Valued: Pleasure, dignity, and integrity
  70. Bentham Vs. Mill
    • Bentham - One pleasure is as good as any other. Only quantity counts
    • Mill - There are higher and lower pleasures. Quality  is more important
  71. Why did Mill reject Bentham's justice theory?
    Justice as impartiality in favor of conception focused on autonomy or self-determination
  72. The "No Harm Principle"
    Mill said that it is more important than the duty to maximize happiness
  73. Speciesist
    To exclude non-humans in the view of a moral community.
  74. Deontology
    • The Ethics of Duty
    • Transcultural, universally binding duties are the basis of morality. 
    • Duty requires following moral laws/rules. The moral law is an end in itself.
  75. Absolute Duties in Deontology
    They are always morally binding regardless of circumstances.
  76. Statement: Most deontologists regard moral duties are pima facie duties
    They are morally binding unless overridden by a more pressing moral duty
  77. What is the source of moral duty?
    • Kant - Held it must be grounded in reason
    • WD Ross - Held that duties are self-evident, known intuitively
  78. Confucius and Deontology
    • Combines deontology with virtue ethics.
    • The good society can only be achieved by acting in accordance with duties prescribed by the ancient sages
  79. Immanuel Kant
    • A Deontologist
    • Kant emphasizes the autonomy and dignity of the individual.
    • Derived the Categorical Imperative and Hypothetical imperatives
  80. Kants Foundation for Moral Duty
    • Objective universal laws can't be derived from sentiment/self-interest.
    • Only reason based on objective logical principles can provide the foundation.
  81. Priori
    • Kant
    • Logical consistency requires absolute moral laws
  82. Hypothetical Imperatives
    Tell us to do X IF we desire a certain end
  83. Categorical Imperatives
    • Kant
    • Has 2 formulations
    • Only these determine morality!
    • They tell us to do X regardless of self-interest or utilitarian consequences.
  84. Categorical Imperative 1st Formulation
    • Act only on that maxim through which you can, and at the same time will that is should become a universal law.
    • My own Meaning: You can only act on a principle that can be universally applied with no exception
  85. Categorical Imperative 2nd Formulation
    • So act as to treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of any other, always as an end in itself, never as a means only.
    • So lying is never permissible, but honesty requires respecting a person's dignity.
  86. Sissela Bok on why lying is occasionally permissible
    • 3 conditions:
    • Alternatives to deception have been exhausted
    • It could be made public and acceptable to reasonable persons
    • It survives personal soul-searching
  87. WD Ross
    • A deontologist
    • Developed the Prima Facie Deontology:
    •  -Even when one ought not to do X, doing X may sometimes be the right thing to do.
    • Pleasure is not the only morally relevant consideration
  88. Prima Facie Deontology
    • No act is always right or wrong.
    • Whether something is a duty depends on the circumstances and consequences there for no duties can be absolute.
    • Duties can come into conflict
  89. What to do when duties come into conflict?
    • Part of prima facie deontology
    • Use reason to weight the competing duties and decide which is most compelling and try to honor as many of them as possible.
    • It is unreasonable to demand predetermined answers to all moral questions
  90. The Duty of Justice
    Requires that awe give each person equal consideration
  91. Distributive Justice
    The fair distribution of benefits and burdens in a society.
  92. Retributive Justice
    • Punishment for wrong-doing (based on reason and not revenge).
    • The moral order requires that the guilty suffer in proportion to their crimes
  93. Rights Ethics
    • We must distinguish moral and legal rights.
    • While alw is typically based on morality they can conflict:
    • We can have a moral but not legal right
    • We can have a legal right but not moral
  94. Two Main Views of Rights Ethics
    • Natural Rights Ethics: Independent and not derived from duty
    • Duty-Derived Rights: Rights are derived from duty
  95. Natural Rights Ethics
    • Hobbs and Locke
    • Moral rights are natural (God-given) and self-evident (not duty derived)
    • In a state of nature people are egoists
  96. Hobbes on Natural Rights Ethics
    The fundamental rights is self-preservation
  97. Locke on Natural Rights Ethics
    Life, liberty and property, protected by a democratic government.
  98. Ayn Rand on Natural Rights Ethics
    • In capitalist society, govts sole purpose is to protect individual rights
    • Liberty rights are negative
  99. Marxist Critique of Natural Rights Ethics
    • It protects the land owning right and the expense of the workers.
    • Rights are not based on self-assertion, but on out interests and needs.
  100. 2 Models of how we get our rights in Natural Rights Ethics
    • Self-Assertion Model
    • Interest Model
  101. Self-Assertion Model
    • Only beings who can make/defend moral claims have rights.
    • This leaves out too many beings like animals
  102. Interests Model
    • Rights are based on the equal consideration of interests.
    • A beings interests depend on sentience and on the concept of a good life for it
  103. Duty-Derived Ethics
    • This is the most common view.
    • Rights ethics is not an independent theory we are entitled to them, they do not depend on our ability to assert them.
  104. 2 Kinds of Moral Rights
    • Welfare Rights
    • Liberty Rights
  105. Welfare Rights
    To receive certain social goods, like food, housing, education etc.
  106. Liberty Rights
    • The right to be left alone to pursue our legitimate interests.
    • Legitimate interests are those that do not violate other peoples interests
  107. Liberation Ethicists
    Regard welfare rights as important because w/o a minimal standard of living, we cannot pursue our legitimate interests
  108. Virtue Ethics
    • Are agent-centered.
    • rather than focusing on acts it emphasizes right being and viruous character over right action
  109. Virtue
    Is an admirable character trait or disposition to habitually act in a manner beneficial to self and others.
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Philosophy 2 Final
Philosophy 2 Test 1
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