5 Ling 101

  1. Apparent time hypothesis
    • Studies compare speakers of different ages in a particular community and uses the in for to describe change over time
    • Relies on the assumption that people's basic grammar changes very little during adulthood
    • If older speakers are different from younger speakers there has been a change in that community
  2. Information principle
    The idea that the general properties of language and language change have been the same throughout history and we are thus able to look at the changes going on today and assume that the same kind of forces were at play in the past
  3. Embedding problem
    Determining the particular combination s of social and linguistic behaviors where change happens
  4. Actuation problem
    Determining why a particular linguistic change happens when it does
  5. Age grading
    When differences between age groups repeat as each generation ages, that is, when all speakers in a particular variant at one age and then a different variant at another
  6. Real time study
    A study that samples a speech community at two or more points in time
  7. Dialect atlas
    A collection of maps of a given area that show the distribution of various linguistic features
  8. Panel study
    A real time study that looks at the same members of a speech community at two (or more) points in time
  9. Trend study
    A real time study that studies different members of a speech community at different times, ex. Talking to people who are 20, 40, and 60 and other people who are 20, 40 and 60 twenty years in the future
  10. Stable variation
    Variation without change, when multiple variants survive for a long period, without one replacing the other
  11. Change in time is reflected in
    • Variation at any single point in time but not all variation is part of a change.
    • Some variation is stable and sticks around for centuries
  12. Research says that stable variation is found in (among others):
    • G-droppin'
    • Negative concord
  13. Research says that current change in progress is found in (among others)
    • Quotatives
    • Intensifiers
  14. We know which variations are stable and which are current changes in progress because
    We compare the speech of different generations
  15. What does if mean if people of different ages speak differently?
    • It could mean that:
    • 1. There are stable "old" and "young" people ways to talking, and today's youth will develop old person ways of talking as they age
    • 2. These changes across the lifespan could be due to entering or leaving the work force, an adolescent love of novelty/rebellion etc.
    • 3. Apparent time hypothesis
  16. Apparent time hypothesis
    • People born in 1930s sound like 1930s, people born in 1990s sound┬álike 1990s (assuming we speak more or less the same throughout our lives)
    • Comparing generations lets us see change as it happens
    • This overturns earlier linguists assumptions that we could only study change after the fact
  17. Uniformation principle
    Using the present to explain the past
  18. Studying the mechanics of change (using apparent time data)
    • Lets us understand principles underlying language change more generally
    • Assuming the forces don't change even if social details do
  19. The embedding problem
    Trying to figure out social conditions
  20. The Sociolinguistic of change
    • Lang don't change themselves, their speakers change them
    • Some people are going to lead change
  21. Labov principle of change I
    In stable Sociolinguistic stratification men use a higher frequency of non-standard forms than women
  22. Labov principle Ia.
    In change from above, women favor the incoming prestige forms more than men
  23. Labov principle II
    • In change from below women are most often the innovators
    • Above/below=above/below the level of consciousness and from higher/lower social classes
  24. The actuation problem
    • Why should change happen when it does?
    • Increased awareness of prestige forms: education, media, these affect attitudes which might eventually affect actual language use
    • Increased contact with speakers of other varities
  25. The actuation problem 2
    • Social aspirations: a variety can increase in prestige
    • Resistance to globalization, gentrification: speakers can increase rates of locally ID'ed speech features to prove that they belond
  26. How do we test whether a difference across generations represents change rather than age grading?
    Ideal we confirm out apparent time findings with real time studies
  27. Real time studies is
    When we look at speech from two different time periods
  28. Types of real time studies
    • Panel study
    • Trend study
  29. Panel study
    • Looks at the same actual people, across time.
    • Any changes are probably real but you have to track down the same exact person
  30. Trend study
    Looks at different people with the same characteristics
  31. Pattern of change S shaped curve
    • A reoccurring finding in change studies
    • Lang change starts slow gets fast in the middle and finishes slow
    • Makes sense that not many new feature users to spread the form, at the end, not many old feature users to change
  32. Re-studies
    When an older result is taken and people go back to seen how things have changed
  33. Vowel shifts
    Widely studied because vowels can change incrementally, there are subtle differences and are studied through instrumental measurements
  34. Kids learn
    • Variation in their community around age 3
    • Style shifting around age 4 (they know which forms to use in which social contexts)
    • Linguistic constraints around age 7, like which ties of verbs get a g-drop
  35. Sensitive period of learning language
    • If you don't learn the rules for language use Ina community by a certain age you don't ever really get them right
    • Evidence form people who move during adolescence
    • Especially true for word class rules where you have to learn a set of words that take a particular vowel pronunciation
  36. Adolescent peak
    • The highest rates of use of nonstandard or innovative features
    • Could be driven by younger kids thinking the adolescent peak is the norm
    • It is a time of ID creation
  37. Marche linguistique
    • Linguistic market
    • When you get into the workforce you may need to standardize your lang
    • This could spill over in nonwork life
    • This will vary depending on age, community, workplace etc
  38. Sociolinguistic of the elderly
    • Generally understudied as Sociolinguistic actors, instead looked at traditional features ro Lang pathologies
    • That seems to be changing with new work on communities of practice and an aging population spurring more interest
Card Set
5 Ling 101
Chapter five notes and crap