Community Exam 4

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  1. women live longer than
  2. health care use is greater among
  3. death rates are higher for ____ in the major causes of death
  4. who remain disadvantaged despite advances in technology
  5. MORTALITY rates are higher among
  6. MORBIDITY rates are higher among
  7. gender differences in longevity are associated with?
    higher risk?
    physiological and behavioral factors 

  8. behavioral factors & reluctancy to seek preventative and health services
  9. rates of longevity for men and women are
  10. people can live how many years longer than their forefathers at turn of 19th century
    20 years
  11. Infants born in U.S. '96 can expect to live
    77 years
  12. infants born in 1900 (death rates highest) lived
    average of 47.3 years
  13. Life expectancy for women and men have
  14. 2007-2008 men and women gained ____ because _____
    0.2 years of longevity 

    advantages in treatment of heart disease and cancer
  15. factors that influence in-congruencies between males and females are
    • race
    • ethnic origin 
    • socioeconomic status
    • education
  16. less advantaged, minoirites in U.S. live
    significantly fewer years
  17. Black men live ____ years less than white men
    6 years
  18. Hispanics and whites have
    comparable life expectancy
  19. top 5 causes of death in ALL MALES
    • 1. heart disease
    • 2. cancer
    • 3. unintentional injuries
    • 4. chronic lower respiratory diseases
    • 5. stroke
  20. U.S. lags behind several countries in
    premature mortality rates for males
  21. 2011-only 6 countries had higher premature rates for males than U.S. `
    • russian federation
    • mexico
    • hungary
    • estonia
    • poland
    • slovak republic
  22. In U.S., males lead females in
    mortality rates in each leading cause of death
  23. since 1990s, cancer related deaths in women have declined at a slower rate than
  24. lifetime risk for lung cancer is estimated to be

  25. death rate for chronic lower disease among females from '80-'08
    increased from 14.9 per 100k - 39.1
  26. death rate for chronic lower disease among males from '80-'08
    increased from 49.9-51.4
  27. males 15-64 are 2-3x more likely to die from
    unintentional injuries than females of same age
  28. men are more likely to commit suicide than women by
  29. males >85 when compared to women are more likely to
    commit suicide (11x)
  30. black men 45-64 more likely to die from ___ than white men
    HIV (8x likely)
  31. black males 15-24 more likely to die of ____ than white men
    vehicle accidents
  32. black men are ___ more likely to _____ than white men
    • 7x 
    • die of homicide
  33. hispanic men are twice as likely as white men to
    die from homicide
  34. men perceive their health
    better than women do
  35. NHIS suvey 2010 men rated their health
    excellent or very good
  36. gender differences in morbidity rates reflect
    • incidence of acute illness
    • prevalence of medical conditions
    • use of medical care
  37. men are at greater risk for
  38. women are more likely to be
    ill (complainers)
  39. chronic condition
    persists for AT LEAST 3 MO. or belongs to a group of conditions classified as chronic regardless on onset (TB, neoplasm, arthritis)
  40. more likely to have a higher prevalence of chronic disease that cause disability and limitation of activities but do not lead to death
  41. higher morbidity and mortality rates for conditions that are leading cause of death
  42. medical care
    use of ambulatory care, hospital care, preventative care, or other health services
  43. who seeks ambulatory care less often
  44. primary setting for ambulatory care for women and men
    physician's office
  45. when do men seek a physician
    only if they experience a SPECIFIC HEALTH-RELATED SYMPTOM
  46. men 18-24 are more likely to visit ____ than women of same age
    ER for unintentional injuries
  47. delay treatment so they are sicker when they do seek care and require more intensive medical care
  48. rates of discharge from short-stay hospitals are lower
    in men
  49. longer length of stay in hospital
  50. >65 discharge rates are higher in
    men than women
  51. most men do not have
    routine checkups
  52. eligiblity for primary care is higher in
  53. men tend to have fewer
    • dental exams
    • health care provider visits
    • colorectal testing and procedures
  54. there are more ____ births
  55. infant mortality rates are higher in
  56. greater risk of prematurity
    infectious diseases
    • males 
    • because of male hormones on the developing lungs
  57. sex chromosome-linked diseases, such as hemophilla and muscular dystrophy
    more common in men
  58. biological advantages for females
    estrogen-related mechanism protects against heart disease
  59. men have higher testosterone levels that cause
    lower HDL cholesterol levels
  60. body fat distribution that contribute to metabolic syndrome
    • abdomen-men
    • women-thighs, butt
  61. Men have higher stored levels of what that increase risk for ischemic heart diseaes
  62. brain cells die faster
  63. more often hospitalized for mental illness
  64. males have weaker
    immune systems
  65. socialization aspect for men
    emphasizes assertivness, restricted emotional display, concern for power, and reckless behavior
  66. plays an important role in the adherance to musculine norm
    • peer pressure
    • men passing emphasizing risking personal injury to son to demonstrate masculinity
  67. account for 92% of work related fatalities
  68. healthrisk for men
    • higher exposure to carcinogens-mesthelioma, coal worker's pneumonoconiosis 
    • higher hostility, mistrust for others-ishemic heart disease
    • drive faster, traffic violations
    • greater vehicle mortality
    • 5x more likely than women to drink heavy
  69. men are ___ in 4 out of 5 homicides
  70. black male 5th leading cause of death
  71. homicide is NOT one of the top 10 for
  72. when does a man change health behaviors
    suggested and supported by female family member they perceived concerned for their well-being
  73. illness orientation
    ability to note symptoms and take appropriate action
  74. Men's health revealed
    9 million men have not seen a provider in past 5 years
  75. men lack
    somatic awareness and less likely to interpret symptoms as indicators of illness
  76. overweight percentages
    • 41% male
    • 28% female
  77. less likely to engage in surveys and report health problems
  78. men respond better to
    DIRECT vs. open ended questions
  79. females have a higher prevalence for
    nonfatal chronic conditions
  80. Gender-linked behavior
    largest differences in mortality rates
  81. more encouraged and prevalent in men
    • tobacco: lung cancer, bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma 
    • substance abuse: cirrhosis, accidents, homicide
    • poor preventative health habits/stress: heart disease
    • lack of other emotional channels: cirrhosis, suicide, homicide, accidents
  82. 3 conditions that account for 2/3 of all deaths require greatest use of health care resources
    • 1. CHD
    • 2. cancer
    • 3. stroke
  83. healthy lifestyles are not a matter of free choice but rather
    result of opportunities that are not always equally available to people
  84. most significant approaches in future will be those that reach men where
    • community
    • schools
    • workplace
    • public settings
  85. what approaches should be considered
    • political processes that set policy
    • health marketing techniques
    • advocacy
  86. men dental exam
    q year
  87. men eye exam
    q 3-5 years
  88. men bp check
    q 2 years
  89. cholesterol levels for men >53
  90. prostate exam
    q year after 50
  91. black men  prostate exam
    q year after 40
  92. colorectal exam
    q 3-5 years
  93. tobacco use and cessation info
    q year
  94. men 65+ who have smoked need what exam
    screening for abd. aortic aneurysm
  95. males should work in a
    altered capacity rather than remaining away from work until injuries are completely healed
  96. seat belt use has increased by
    20% from 1991 to 2007
  97. primary prevention for men
    • provide health education/screening in workplace
    • participate in interest groups and research
    • encourage interest in physical fitness and lifestyle changes
  98. legislation
    biggest  prevention!
  99. secondary prevention for men
    • screening 
    • tailor health care clinics to men's needs
  100. tertiary prevention for men
    • rehabilitation with sex role and lifestyle considerations 
  101. males infants have a higher mortality rate from what
    • infectious diseases
    • prematurity
    • RDS
    • CERTAIN types of muscuoloskeletal disorders
  102. men are 3x less likely than women to do what
    wear their seatbealts
  103. men are less likely to be seen by a community health nurse because
    maternal and child care are the major focus on many health departments
  104. factors that impedes men's health
    • financial ability
    • gaps in preventative care
    • infrequent use of health care
    • risk-taking behaviors
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Community Exam 4
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