chapter 9 The Urinary System

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  1. -cele
    hernia, tumor, swelling
  2. cyst/o
    urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid
  3. dia-
    through, between, apart, complete
  4. -ectasis
    stretching, dilation, enlargement
  5. glomerul/o
  6. lith/o
  7. -lysis
    breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening
  8. nephr/o
  9. -pexy
    surgical fixation
  10. pyel/o
    renal pelvis, bowl of kidney
  11. -tripsy
    to crush
  12. ur/o
    urine, urinary tract
  13. ureter/o
  14. urethr/o
  15. -uria
    urination, urine
  16. ablation
    The removal of a body part or the destruction of its function.
  17. anuria
    The absence of urine formation by the kidneys.
  18. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    An abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
  19. chronic kidney disease
    The progressive loss of renal function over months or years.
  20. cystitis
    Inflammation of the bladder.
  21. cystocele
    A hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a prolapsed bladder.
  22. cystolith
    A stone located in the urinary bladder.
  23. cystopexy
    The surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
  24. cystoscopy
    The visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
  25. dialysis
    A procedure to remove waste products from the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer function.
  26. diuresis
    The increased output of urine.
  27. end-stage renal disease
    The final stage of chronic kidney disease that is fatal unless the functions of the failed kidneys are successfully replaced by dialysis or with a successful kidney transplant.
  28. enuresis
    The involuntary discharge of urine.
  29. epispadias
    A congenital abnormality affecting the opening of the urethral opening. In the male, the opening is located on the upper surface of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is located in the region of the clitoris.
  30. extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
    The use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel to break up kidney stones into fragments, which are then excreted in the urine.
  31. glomerulonephritis
    A form of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine.
  32. hemodialysis
    A procedure that filters waste products directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys.
  33. hydronephrosis
    The dilation of one or both kidneys that is the result of an obstruction of the flow of urine.
  34. hydroureter
    Distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked.
  35. hyperproteinuria
    The presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine.
  36. hypoproteinemia
    The presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood.
  37. hypospadias
    A congenital abnormality in the placement of the urethral opening. In the male, the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is into the vagina.
  38. incontinence
    The inability to control the excretion of urine and/or feces.
  39. interstitial cystitis
    A chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder.
  40. intravenous pyelogram
    A radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters using a contrast medium to diagnose changes in the urinary tract.
  41. nephrolith
    A stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone.
  42. nephrolithiasis
    The presence of a stone or stones in the kidney.
  43. nephrolysis
    The freeing of a kidney from adhesions.
  44. nephrons
    The microscopic functional units of each kidney where urine is produced through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
  45. nephropathy
    Any kidney disease including degenerative and inflammatory conditions.
  46. nephroptosis
    The prolapse, or dropping down, of a kidney into the pelvic area when the patient stands; also known as a floating kidney.
  47. nephropyosis
    Suppuration of the kidney.
  48. nephrostomy
    The placement of a catheter to maintain an opening from the pelvis of one or both kidneys to the exterior of the body.
  49. nephrotic syndrome
    A groups of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost in the urine, resulting in abnormally low levels of protein in the blood.
  50. neurogenic bladder
    A urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination.
  51. nocturia
    Frequent and excessive urination during the night.
  52. nocturnal enuresis
    Urinary incontinence during sleep.
  53. oliguria
    Scanty urination.
  54. percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    The surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back.
  55. peritoneal dialysis
    Dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood.
  56. polycystic kidney disease
    An inherited kidney disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys leading eventually to kidney failure.
  57. polyuria
    Excessive urination.
  58. prostatism
    A disorder resulting from the compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatichyperplasia.
  59. pyeloplasty
    The surgical repair of the ureter and renal pelvis.
  60. pyelotomy
    A surgical incision into the renal pelvis.
  61. suprapubic catheterization
    The placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made in the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone.
  62. uremia
    A toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which urea and other waste products are retained in the blood; also known as uremic poisoning.
  63. ureterectasis
    The distention of a ureter.
  64. ureterolith
    A stone located anywhere along the ureter.
  65. ureterorrhagia
    The discharge of blood from a ureter.
  66. ureterorrhaphy
    The surgical suturing of a ureter.
  67. urethritis
    Inflammation of the urethra.
  68. urethropexy
    The surgical fixation of the urethra to nearby tissue, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence.
  69. urethrorrhagia
    Bleeding from the urethra.
  70. urethrostenosis
    Narrowing of the urethra.
  71. urethrotomy
    A surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
  72. urinary catheterization
    The insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes, to drain urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate, or to place medication into the bladder.
  73. vesicovaginal fistula
    An abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina.
  74. voiding cystourethrography
    A diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra.
  75. Wilms tumor
    A rare type of malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children.
  76. Pyelonephritis
    An inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney.
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chapter 9 The Urinary System
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