Eco and Evo

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  1. what do all insects have?
    • 6 legs
    • antennas 
    • two pairs of wings (if they do)
    • plastic mouthpiece
  2. what were the unmoving wings for?
    thermal regulation
  3. first insects to fold wing back
    grasshopers, stinkbugs, cicadas
  4. direct development
    hatch from egg just like adult, don't have wings or reproductive organs
  5. stag beetle is an example of
    • indirect development 
    • larva and adult don't compete for same food
    • larva eats more
    • with red fangs
  6. catastrophic metamorphosis
    larva is so different from adult
  7. what kind of insect has a mandible mouth? good at crushing things?
  8. what kind of insect munches/kisses food?
  9. what kind of animal with long mouthpiece?
  10. which insect eats parts of animal, has long thing to stab you
  11. butterfly adaptation
    chalky substance on scales, neutralize silk of spider and echo of bats so they can't be caught
  12. what is an adaptation of the moth
    gets food from plant in exchange for spreading pollen
  13. what % similarity does sister workers share? how?
    75%, 50% identical from dad, and 25% identical from mom.
  14. hamilton's rule
    • rB>C
    • relatedness and benefit to recipient (queen bee) greater than cost
    • queen bee will make more
  15. why are insects small?
    body breathing tubes made out of chitin, can't be stretched, need oxygen
  16. why did insects get so big in Carboniferous era?
    increase in oxygen
  17. E.O. Wilson and insects
    environment would collapse into chaos without insects
  18. oldest myriapod fossil
    millipede from late Silurian (428 million year ago)
  19. cymothoa exigua
    tongue eating parasite
  20. phylum arthropoda
    • body into segments
    • each segment has a pair of jointed appendages
    • exoskeleton by cuticle
    • hemocoel
  21. tagma vs. tagmosis
    • specialized grouping of multiple segments into a coherently functional unit
    • evolutionary process that creates tagmata by fusing and modifying segments
  22. somites
  23. open circulatory system
    • pump blood into hemocoel with blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. 
    • fluid in cavity called hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients and no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
  24. hemocoel in arthropods
    • body cavity that contains blood or hemolymph
    • goes along with open circulatory system
  25. ecdysis in arthopods
    • hormone induced molting
    • no cilia on larvae or adults
  26. what happens to coelom in arthropods
    • reduced to region around gonads
    • coelom (body cavity)
  27. arthropod 5 phyla
    • trilobites
    • chelicerates
    • hexapoda
    • curstacea
    • myriapoda
  28. success of arthropod is attributed to?
    • exoskeleton (osmosis so transition to land, predator)
    • tagmosis
    • joint appendages
  29. two parts of cuticle
    • epicuticle (external part) to retain water, made of wax and protein
    • protocuticle made of chitin (Sclerotization and then mineralization)
  30. three parts divided by tagmosis?
    • head, thorax, abdomen (tagmata)
    • hox genes determine spatial orientation
  31. layers of epicuticle
    • outer: lipoproteins
    • middle: waxy layer of fats, wax esters
    • inner: protein
  32. procuticle (chitin and protein) is hardened by?
    • sclerotization (cross linking of protein into 3D)
    • mineralization (deposition of calcium carbonate in pro cuticle of crustaceans
  33. instars
    • stages between molts
    • when actual tissue growth occurs, but no size increase until after the molt
    • cuticle is weakened enzymatically then animal comes out
    • after molting, animal sucks in water/air to inflate new cuticle (hardens)
  34. where do muscles anchor on arthropods?
    inside of cuticle, connect into the jointed appendages on each segment
  35. how does the diversity of body form evolve?
    • specialization of segments, regions and appendages
    • tagmosis, segments are specialized for diff functions, create greater efficiency
  36. which phyla has uniramous and biramous?
    • crustaceans are biramous
    • uniramous are insects.
  37. podites
    • specialized muscles to move limb pieces
    • extrinsic muscles connect to body wall
    • intrinsic muscles are contained entirely inside the limb
  38. biramous
    • each limb has 2 branches
    • found in marine arthropods (crustaceans) they need this to help swim in water
  39. trilobitomorpha
    • extinct
    • most common group of fossil arthropods
    • once abundant in oceans
  40. parts of trilobitomorpha
    cephalon (head), thorax, pygidium
  41. cheliceriformes
    spiders, scorpions and horseshoe crabs
  42. cheliceriformes
    • 65,000 spieces
    • body of 2 magmata (cephalothorax and abdomen)
    • no antennae
    • gas exchange by book gills, book lungs or tracheae
    • separate sexes
  43. chelicerate
    first pair of appendages in cheliceriformes (looks like fangs)
  44. class pycnogonida
    • sea spiders
    • benthic
    • sucking proboscis (nose to feed)
    • males brood eggs on ovigers (leg appendages)
    • females (hollow legs filled with eggs)
  45. subclass merostomata
    • horseshoe crabs (order xiphosura)
    • 5 living species (all other extinct)
    • small chelicerae
    • telson or tail spine to flip itself back
  46. what was the first walking leg used for in horseshoe crab?
    • to eat 
    • called pedipalp
  47. segments of horseshoe crab are called
    • prosoma (head and thorax)
    • opisthosoma (abs)
  48. subclass arachnida
    • opisthosomal appendages absent or modified as spinnerets (for spinning silk proteins-one of the strongest)
    • gas exchange by tracheae or book lungs
  49. subphylum crustacea
    • 3 tagmata (5 segmented head, thorax, abdomen)
    • carapace (hard upper shield)
    • mandibles, modified limbs act as jaws
    • biramous limbs
    • gills are actually legs modified for gas exchange
    • nauplius larva
    • ocelli
    • nephridia
    • 2 pairs of antennae
  50. nephridia in crustacea
    glands near antenna where excretion happens
  51. maxillipeds
    • if first thoracic segment fuses with head, its appendages grow as maxillipeds
    • crustacean
  52. 1st antennae
    • called antennules
    • in crustacean
  53. what are parts of a crustacean limb?
    • protopod, branches join at the base
    • inner branch (endopod)
    • outer branch (exopod)
  54. epipods
    • extensions on outer side (function as gills, gill cleaners, flattened)
    • crustacean
  55. endites
    • extensions toward the body often form a spiny grinding surface 
    • crustacean
  56. class malacostraca
    crabs, shrimps, lobsters
  57. class malacostraca
    • body of 19 segments
    • head (5)
    • thorax (8)
    • abdomen (6+telson)
  58. pereopods
    • pereopods (walkings legs)
    • pleopods (swimming legs)
  59. hoplocarida (super order of class Malacostraca)
    stomatopods (manis shrimp)
  60. eucarida, superorder of malacostraca
    krill, crabs, shrimps, lobsters
  61. superorder of Malacostraca, peracarida
    isopods, amphipods, mysids
  62. mantis shrimp
    lots of eyes, colors, vicious predators snagging prey with raptorial limbs.
  63. krill
    form feeding swarms, especially at the poles, primary food source for many whales
  64. order decapoda
    5th walking leg modified for swimming
  65. maxilliped
    appendage in crustaceans modified for feeding
  66. brachyura
    • true crabs
    • 1st antenna outside the eye, 2nd between the eyes
  67. anomura
    • hermit and king crabs
    • 3 to 4 pairs of walking legs, 5th reduced to gill cleaner
    • first and second antennae are between the eyes
  68. palinura
  69. nauplius stage
    • having an unsegmented body and a single eye
    • in decapods (crabs) the stage occurs in side the egg
  70. developmental stages of crabs
    • zoea (larval form)
    • megalops (transparent juvenile)
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Eco and Evo
Exam 2
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