History Cards for part 2 semester

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  1. Lexington and Concord
    Where the first battles of the american revolutionary war took place
  2. Battle Of Bunker Hill
    • Most fighting would actually be on Breeds Hill
    • English were bombing certain places
    • Americans would lose this battle because of Britains larger numbers but they felt they one anyways
    • Would inflict significant damage upon the British army
  3. Second Continental Congress
    • Was the 2nd attmept to create a government
    • some wanted complete independence from England (Sam Adams).
    • Others just wanted the be peaceful again and wanted only a small amount of control from England
    • Came up with 2 resolutions known as Olive Branch Petition, and Declaration of the causes and Necessity of taking up arms.
  4. Olive Branch Petition (July 5 1775)
    Reiterated Colonial grievances to the crown and spelled out ways to fix this problems quickly and easily
  5. Declaration of the causes and Necessity of taking up arms.
    • Said the colonists were left with 2 solutions
    • Armed resistance
    • and total control under the Crown
  6. Prohibitory Act
    • Closed all ports to overseas trade 
    • stipulated that no concessions would be given to the colonies
    • Intensified the antagonistic attitudes between the colonies and the crown
  7. Lord Dunmore
    • Created his Ethiopian Regiment (Negro Army)
    • Announced that any slaves that made it across his lines would be put in his army to earn their freedom.
  8. Thomas Pain
    38 year old Englishman who migrated to the colonies and wrote a book called Common Sense. would be one of he most important books in American History.
  9. Common Sense
    • Said the king was not very smart and recommended breaking away form England
    • Also spoke of a new type of government where the people vote the leader of the country into power and take away their power as they see fit.
  10. July 4th 1776 Declaration of Independence
    Document that stated their freedom from Britain
  11. What was the first thing colonists did when they declared their independence?
    They opened their ports and started making connections with other countries
  12. Valley Forge
    A winter camp that George Washington was forced into during the winter
  13. Battle Of Saratoga
    Marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign and gave the English a victory over the British
  14. Benedict Arnold
    Decided to switch sides during the civil war
  15. Battle of Yorktown
    The french and George Washington would defeat Lord Cornwallis
  16. What were to two ongoing decisions at the end of the war
    Many wanted to keep the war going but others just wanted to go ahead and end it.
  17. The Treaty of Paris
    tried to protect loyalist to Britain and also guaranteed full protection for them. Also agreed that America would be recognized as a country
  18. William Franklin
    Was the son of Benjamen Franklin and was also a soldier in the war
  19. Loyalists
    People who war loyal to Britain during the war. Many would decide to go to Canada after the war.
  20. Anglican Religion
    Was a religion that was usually run by the queen or king so it was not very favorable in the colonies after the war.
  21. Quakers
    The would lost favor with colonists because their faith would not allow them to participate in war and they stayed neutral.
  22. Women post war
    Women gained a whole new respect as figures of the household many women also participated in the war.
  23. Molly Pitcher
    worked a cannon in the revolutionary war after watching her husband get shot. Helped to start the women rights movement
  24. Native Americans after the war
    Many were loyal to Great Britain and took their side so they were prosecuted by the colonists and treated as conquered people
  25. Alexander Hamilton
    was one of the most influential men in history but was later killed in a deul
  26. Shays Rebellion
    was a rebellion resulting form the colonies needing money when they were being taxed.
  27. James Madison
    Helped word the constitution and and said there should be and upper house of equal representation and a lower house based on poplulation
  28. Great Compromise
    3/5 compromise said slaves would count as 3/5 of a person
  29. Problems with trade
    • Ships no longer had Protection from the British
    • England is driving them off high seas
    • No longer could trade w/ England
    • Privateers would raid colonial trade ships
  30. Articles of Confederation
    first attemept at creating a constitution but was very weak.
  31. Northwest ordinance of 1787
    A law passed in 1787 to regulate the settlement of the Northwest Territory, which eventually was divided into several states of the Middle West. The United States was governed under the Articles of Confederation at the time.
  32. Constitution
    Was a document describing how the government would be run. established houses and voting rights as well as human rights. It was signed on Sep. 7th 1787
  33. Framers
    The men who helped to created the constituiton
  34. Federatlists
    Supporters of the constitution
  35. Federalists papers
    a collection of journals that discussed the constitution.
  36. Anti-federalists
    • People who were against the constitution because it:
    • increased taxes
    • favored the wealthy
    • weakened the power of the states
    • Abolished Liberty
  37. Rebpublicans
    • After the constitution was ratified this is what anti-federalists would become known as.
    • Included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
  38. George Washington
    First president of the United States
  39. John Adams
    First VP of the United states
  40. Judiciary Act
    Created Supreme Court
  41. Conflicting views of the North and South
    • Federalists wanted technology and a mechanized america
    • republicans wanted to be spread out and only rely on agriculture.
  42. Whiskey Rebellion
    A small scale rebellion against taxes because of a tax on whiskey rebels would destroy the home of a tax collector
  43. Jay Treaty
    British soldiers had no yet left and ships where still harassing the US. the treaty got the money we lost through all this was returned to us.
  44. Pickney treaty
    Pickney treaty was a treaty with the Spanish that gained them the control of the Ms. River.
  45. Election of 1796
    John Adams was elected President
  46. Alien Act
    Place a lot of restriction on Immigration
  47. Sedition act
    Basically took away freedom of speech if it was speech that stood against ideas of government.
  48. Thomas Jefferson
    Wanted to shrink government and give power to the states again. He was elected president after John Adams
  49. Education in the early 1800s
    People supported Jefferson's idea of public schools and colleges would also be established for law and medecine
  50. 2nd Great Awakening
    Only 10 percent of people would still be affiliated with a church. made ministries less important and tried to re instituted god into life. people would become Christians again.
  51. cane ridge
    was a camp meeting revival that supported the 2nd great awakening and kind of set it off.
  52. Mechanized Labor
    The north started to use machinery in the making of items. it was quicker easier and made a lot of people more money.
  53. Cotton Gin
    Created by Eli Whitney in 1793 cotton gin allowed Mississippi to take off in the cotton Market. helped revolutionize the south. increased profit form cotton 8x what it used to be. made slaver increase form 400,000 or over 4,000,000
  54. Transportation
    Colonies would start using ships for transportation of goods or trade.
  55. Steamboat
    Robert Fulton Livingston steamboat would be key to expanding trade especially in the US.
  56. Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson was the president of the US. during the War of 181
  57. Louisianan Purchase
    Needed access to the mouth of the Mississippi so we could use that for trade after Spain took that away form us. Napoleon who was desperate for funds for his war would then offer them the entire state of Louisiana including the entire MS River.
  58. Haitian Revolt
    The Haitians revolted from he french and broke themselves loose of French Control
  59. Coarticion
    said that any slave who had the money to buy their freedom could do so.
  60. Free Person of color race and citizenship
    Thomas Jefferson said that these people were dangerous because it would influence slave to revolt.
  61. Burr Conspiaracy
    Was a conspiracy that claimed to man who murdered Alexander Hamilton was planning to try and take over New Orleans.
  62. Marbury Vs Madison
    Was the first supreme court case where something was ruled unconstitutional.
  63. How the war of
  64. how the war of 1812 began
    • Problems withe international trade
    • The Indian problem
    • British west florida
  65. Continental system
    • Hurt great Britain trade said any ship from great Britain or doing business with great Britain would not be allowed in French ports
    • In turn the British set up a blockade that made it to where all ships had to pass through it before going to french ports
  66. impressment
    Went on ships and had to force people to serve on British navy ships
  67. Chesapeake leapoard incident
    When the british fired upon an English ship killing many
  68. Techumseh
    helped to organize Indian tribes against Americans. would later perish against the US in Canada
  69. William Henry Harrison
    Would lead an attack on Indians in 1812 helping to start the war of 1812.
  70. John Calhoun and Henry Clay
    hated the British and wanted them out of Canada and America
  71. New England succession
    New England did not like the idea of war because they knew it was not good for trade. they talked about succeeding form the US. to get away form it.
  72. Absence of the british in Early year.
    The US managed to work their way up to Canada where they burned down the capitol in Montreal.
  73. The British turn their attention towards America.
    Great Britain would send over more troops to support the upcoming war and the soldiers even returned the favor by burning our White house down
  74. Battle of McHenry
    Where the Star Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key
  75. The treaty of Ghent
    signed in 1814 and did not really satisfy either side becuase the war was a draw
  76. The Battle of New Orleans
    Perhaps the most popular battle and took place after the war was officially over. Andrew Jackson led country men an all black army and even pirates into a battle with the British where they lost 7 men. 2000 Britain's would be wounded or killed and Andrew Jackson would be considered a national Hero
  77. Winner and losers of the war of 1812
    Nobody really one but the Indians definitely lost. the lost a lot of land and a large portion of their population.
  78. James Monroe
    introduced the era of good feelings.
  79. Antebellum
    pre civil war era
  80. The Missouri compromise
    • said slavery would be contained and after they turned 25 would be emancipated. Helped end the era of good feelings.
    • Also the main reason for the civil war
  81. 36-30 parrellel line
    admitted Main as a free state. when a slave state is admitted, a free state is admitted and implied African Americans were not American Citizens and had no rights
  82. King Caucus
    and informal meeting where they decided to vote for president to take the public out of it.
  83. Andrew Jackson
    was the Hero of the battle in 1812 New Orleans. and was considered more of a common man. was also a president
  84. John Quincy Adams
    • was one of the presidents of the United States.
    • he believed people did not have their rights because they were not smart enough
  85. Dorr Rebelion
    was an attempt to force a broader democracy
  86. White Male Suffrage
    White men who did not own land were not allowed to vote.
  87. The election of 1828
    was the election mainly between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson won by a landslide
  88. Impressment
    The British went on ships and forcibly enlisted English men
  89. Second Bank of America
    was set up to help regulate commerce and had a 20 year charter.
  90. Mountain Men
    In between the 2 groups made money and traded with the Indians often married Indian or Spanish women
  91. Henry Clay
    was tin many ways the broker of the Missouri compromise put up for election
  92. John C Calhoun
    was very young and very talented politician he would drop out after John Quincy Adams and thomas Jefferson approached him about being Vice President
  93. The Corrupt Bargain
    John Adams would take Henry Clay as his vice president
  94. The tarrif of abominations
    protected American made good from being cut and really helped Northern Manufacturers and went against southern farmers
  95. Force Hill
    overrode pensylvanias nullification of the Treaty
  96. The Black Hawk War
    another conflict about land that was supposedly native American war
  97. Trail of Tears
    forced the movement of 12000 choctaw indians
  98. Nicholas Biddle
    Was the president of the bank and used his power to his advantage
  99. Hard Money vs. Soft money
    gold and silver coins vs unreliable cash money that may or may not be backed up
  100. 2nd bank of United states and Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson was very against the second bank. He wanted to kill it
  101. Manifest Destinly
    Nationalistic belief that america was destined to expand farther than their current borders
  102. Texas and Oregon
    • Mexico and Oregon would both be accepted into the unites states with Texas being a slave state. America would offer much money for Texas and Mexico would refuse
    • Mexico would sell the land for very cheep to pull in a larger poplulation but they would rebel agianst mexico
  103. General Antonio Lopez
    Santa Anna
    Led an army against Texans and won but would eventually be defeated and forced to surrender creating the Republic of Texas.
  104. Oregon Country
    Territorial dispute the area that ecompases Oregon had been claimed by the British but many American s would go into this land and settle
  105. The alamo
    a battle between texas and Mexico that Texas would be defeated.
  106. Mexican American war.
    we would defeat Mexico and pay them 15 million for texas to make it official in the eyes of mexico
  107. Wilmot provisio
    created an amendment that said there would be no more slave states but it would be vetoed and many people were worried that slavery would be contained or eliminated
  108. Popular sovereignty
    said people in their own state should b able to decide whether or whether not they would won slaves.
  109. Free soil Party
    Martin Van Buren wanted slaver contained so there would be more opportunity for middle and lower class whites
  110. Slavery in California in 1849
    citizens are protesting for statehood and the constitution they produced banned slavery and there were offers states that were up for statehood and if that happened they were worried the balance between slave states and free states would tip
  111. Compromise of 1850
    Would admit California as a free state and would grant popular sovereignty to the other territories aquired from mexico and made a stronger fugitive slave law that made it illegal for law enforcement not to assist in the returning of slaves to their masters however many would still ignore it
  112. Kansas Nebraska act
    • Proposed to take two a chunk of land and separatist it into two states Kansas and Nebraska
    • instituted popular sovereignty 
    • repealed the Missouri compromise 
    • propelled us toward the civil war.
  113. whig party
    was not united ans split up to help form the republican party
  114. Republican Party
    wanted states to be free so middle class could prosper more
  115. Border War
    people would walk across the border to vote pro slavery
  116. John Brown
    Beleived he was called on by god to end slavery by bloodshed. He and his sons hacked up 6 men and fled to the North
  117. Maret Gardener
    Would kill her children to keep them out of slavery.
  118. the expansion of slavery in the Deep South
    more than 400,000 slaves would be transported into the deep south
  119. Second Middle Passage
    more and more people where moved to the deep central South
  120. Southern antislavery
    A bill was presented saying that slavery would become illlegal in the South for slaves to work and they would work to pay off their worth and then leave the south but the bill was voted down.
  121. 1811 the German Coat Revolt
    A slave revolt that would be led on New Orleans
  122. Gabriels Revolt
    was a slave that led a revolt. Did not want to kill white people or even end slavery. He just wanted to secure that there would be better work conditions for them.
  123. Denmark V.C. revolt
    wanted to steal slave ships and take African slaves to haiti
  124. Nat Turner Revolt
    Went from Plantation to plantation killing all the white people in sight and was eventually caught and executed.
  125. Why would slave owners not let their slaves learn to read and write
    because they believed when they were literate there was more of a chance they would revolt
  126. Seccesion
    South Carolina would be the first state to leave the United states
  127. Crittenden compromise
    A compromise that said if the confederate states came back to the union they would pass laws saying that slavery would be an institution in the united states forever.
  128. presidents of the confederate states and the union
    • Jefferson Davis- confederate
    • Abraham Lincoln- Union
  129. Cornerstone speech
    Said that it was natural for the superior race to lead the weaker race
  130. the start of the Civil War
    ordered PGT Beaureguard to order surrender from anderson
  131. What were the Border states
    • Missouri 
    • Kentucky 
    • Maryland 
    • Deleware
  132. Crittenden resolution
    said all the union wanted was for the confederate states to come back to the union because nobody was trying to take away slavery
  133. 1st confiscation act
    Said the union could confiscate anyone's property from the south including slaves if they were part of the rebelling states
  134. John C Freemont
    A general in the Civil War for Missouri
  135. the 2nd confiscation act
    said if slaves were confiscated they would be freed.
  136. 13th ammendment
    said that slavery was illegal
  137. 14th ammendment
    gave African Americans citizenship
  138. 15th ammendment
    Gave black men the right to vote
  139. charles summer vs. Preston Blake
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History Cards for part 2 semester
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