What are the goals of public speaking?
Stage Fright (Communication Apprehension)
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
Model of Communication
- Speaker : The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
- Message : Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
- Channel : The means by which a message is communicated. (telephone, radio, television)
- Listener : The person who receives the speaker's message.
- Frame of Reference : The sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
- Feedback : The message, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
- Interference : Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
- Situation : The time and place in which speech communication occurs.
The belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
Different types of plagiarism
- Global Plagiarism
- Patchwork Plagiarism
- Incremental Plagiarism
Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own.
Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own.
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
How do you avoid plagiarism?
Be careful when taking research notes to distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrased material, and your own comments. When in doubt cite your source.
Guidelines for ethical speechmaking and listening
- Be courteous and attentive
- Avoid prejudging the speaker
- Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
Ethical issues of research
Choice of language (name calling and abusive language)
- Not concentrating
- Listening too hard
- Jumping to conclusions
- Focusing on delivery and personal appearance
Note taking during speeches
- Be brief
- Separate main points from subpoints
- Accurately summarize speaker's points
Good Listening Techniques
- Be an active listener - giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view
- Resist distractions
- Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery
- Suspend judgment
- Focus your listening - listen for main points, listen for evidence, listen for technique
- Develop note-taking skills
Different types of listening
- Appreciative listening - listening for pleasure or enjoyment
- Empathetic listening - listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
- Comprehensive listening - listening to understand the message of a speaker
- Critical listening - listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
Spare "brain time"
The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 - 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 - 800 words a minute).
Parts to developing a speech
- Choose a topic
- Determine the general purpose
- Determine the specific purpose
- Phrasing the central idea
A single dinfinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
The broad goal of a speech.
What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.
What is the primary purpose of speech making?
to gain a desired response from listeners
How do you determine how long a speech should be?
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.
Three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a topic
Should you ever cite from an abstract?
A specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.
A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.
To restate or summarize a source's ideas in one's own words.
Testimony that is presented word for word.
Strategic order of main points - Chronological Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
Strategic order of main points - Spatial Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
Strategic order of main points - Causal Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.
Strategic order of main points - Problem-Solution Order
A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
Strategic order of main points - Topical Order
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
Why use an outline at all?
A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next.
A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points.
A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.
A word of phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
How to gain attention and interest (in introduction)
- Relate the topic to the audience
- State the importance of your topic
- Startle the audience
- Question the audience
- Arouse the curiosity of the audience
- Begin with a quotation
- Tell a story
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
How does a speaker establish credibility?
credibility is based on firsthand knowledge or experience
How to reinforce the central idea (for conclusion)
- Summarize your speech
- End with a quotation
- Make a dramatic statement
- Refer to the introduction
What is the difference between a speaking outline and a preparation outline?
Preparation Outline - A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech.
Speaking Outline - A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as", between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
A trite or overused expression.
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the work "like" or "as", between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
The similar arangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
The juxtaposition of contrasting idea, usually in parallel structure.
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
Communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
A constant pitch or tone of voice.
The speed at which a person speaks.
A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh" "er" and "um".
Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.
The physical production of particular speech sounds.
A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
- Multimedia Presentations
What are the barriers to effective informative speaking?
Guidelines for Informative Speaking
- Don't overestimate what the audience knows
- Relate the subject directly to the audience
- Don't be too technical
- Avoid abstractions
- Personalize your ideas
Types of Informative Speeches
- Speeches about objects
- Speeches about processes
- Speeches about events
- Speeches about concepts