Comm-R 110 Final

  1. What are the goals of public speaking?
  2. Stage Fright (Communication Apprehension)
    Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
  3. Model of Communication
    • Speaker : The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
    • Message : Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
    • Channel : The means by which a message is communicated. (telephone, radio, television)
    • Listener : The person who receives the speaker's message.
    • Frame of Reference : The sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
    • Feedback : The message, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
    • Interference : Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
    • Situation : The time and place in which speech communication occurs.
  4. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
  5. Different types of plagiarism
    • Global Plagiarism
    • Patchwork Plagiarism
    • Incremental Plagiarism
  6. Global Plagiarism
    Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own.
  7. Patchwork Plagiarism
    Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own.
  8. Incremental Plagiarism
    Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
  9. How do you avoid plagiarism?
    Be careful when taking research notes to distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrased material, and your own comments. When in doubt cite your source.
  10. Guidelines for ethical speechmaking and listening
    • Be courteous and attentive
    • Avoid prejudging the speaker
    • Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
  11. Ethical issues of research
  12. Choice of language (name calling and abusive language)
  13. Poor listening
    • Not concentrating
    • Listening too hard
    • Jumping to conclusions
    • Focusing on delivery and personal appearance
  14. Note taking during speeches
    • Be brief
    • Separate main points from subpoints
    • Accurately summarize speaker's points
  15. Good Listening Techniques
    • Be an active listener - giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view
    • Resist distractions
    • Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery
    • Suspend judgment
    • Focus your listening - listen for main points, listen for evidence, listen for technique
    • Develop note-taking skills
  16. Different types of listening
    • Appreciative listening - listening for pleasure or enjoyment
    • Empathetic listening - listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
    • Comprehensive listening - listening to understand the message of a speaker
    • Critical listening - listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
  17. Spare "brain time"
    The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 - 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 - 800 words a minute).
  18. Parts to developing a speech
    • Choose a topic
    • Determine the general purpose
    • Determine the specific purpose
    • Phrasing the central idea
  19. Specific purpose
    A single dinfinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
  20. Central Idea
    A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
  21. General Purpose
    The broad goal of a speech.
  22. Residual Message
    What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.
  23. What is the primary purpose of speech making?
    to gain a desired response from listeners
  24. How do you determine how long a speech should be?
  25. Egocentrism
    The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being.
  26. Three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a topic
    • Interest
    • Knowledge
    • Attitude
  27. Should you ever cite from an abstract?
  28. Examples
    A specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.
  29. Statistics
    Numerical data.
  30. Brief Example
    A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
  31. Extended Example
    A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
  32. Hypothetical Example
    An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
  33. Peer Testimony
    Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.
  34. Paraphrase
    To restate or summarize a source's ideas in one's own words.
  35. Direct Quotations
    Testimony that is presented word for word.
  36. Strategic order of main points - Chronological Order
    A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
  37. Strategic order of main points - Spatial Order
    A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
  38. Strategic order of main points - Causal Order
    A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.
  39. Strategic order of main points - Problem-Solution Order
    A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
  40. Strategic order of main points - Topical Order
    A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
  41. Why use an outline at all?
  42. Internal Preview
    A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next.
  43. Internal Summary
    A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points.
  44. Signpost
    A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.
  45. Connective
    A word of phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
  46. Transition
    A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
  47. How to gain attention and interest (in introduction)
    • Relate the topic to the audience
    • State the importance of your topic
    • Startle the audience
    • Question the audience
    • Arouse the curiosity of the audience
    • Begin with a quotation
    • Tell a story
  48. Credibility
    The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
  49. How does a speaker establish credibility?
    credibility is based on firsthand knowledge or experience
  50. How to reinforce the central idea (for conclusion)
    • Summarize your speech
    • End with a quotation
    • Make a dramatic statement
    • Refer to the introduction
  51. What is the difference between a speaking outline and a preparation outline?
    Preparation Outline - A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech.

    Speaking Outline - A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.
  52. Connotative Meaning
    The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
  53. Denotative Meaning
    The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
  54. Simile
    An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as", between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
  55. Cliche
    A trite or overused expression.
  56. Metaphor
    An implicit comparison, not introduced with the work "like" or "as", between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
  57. Rhythm
    The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
  58. Parallelism
    The similar arangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
  59. Repetition
    Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
  60. Alliteration
    Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
  61. Antithesis
    The juxtaposition of contrasting idea, usually in parallel structure.
  62. Impromptu Speech
    A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
  63. Nonverbal Communication
    Communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
  64. Pitch
    The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
  65. Inflections
    Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
  66. Monotone
    A constant pitch or tone of voice.
  67. Rate
    The speed at which a person speaks.
  68. Vocalized Pause
    A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh" "er" and "um".
  69. Vocal Variety
    Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
  70. Pronunciation
    The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.
  71. Articulation
    The physical production of particular speech sounds.
  72. Dialect
    A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
  73. Kinesics
    The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
  74. Visual Aids
    • Objects
    • Models
    • Photographs
    • Drawings
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Transparencies
    • Video
    • Multimedia Presentations
    • Speaker
  75. What are the barriers to effective informative speaking?
  76. Guidelines for Informative Speaking
    • Don't overestimate what the audience knows
    • Relate the subject directly to the audience
    • Don't be too technical
    • Avoid abstractions
    • Personalize your ideas
  77. Types of Informative Speeches
    • Speeches about objects
    • Speeches about processes
    • Speeches about events
    • Speeches about concepts
Card Set
Comm-R 110 Final
Final Exam Review