Psychology test 2 Nagmita

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  1. What approach emphasizes self-actualization?
    Phenomenological approach emphasizes
  2. Theoretical constructs are
    they are abstraction and not directly observed
  3. Idiographic approach
    Involves the intense study of the individual to uncover traits unique to the person
  4. Factor Analysis
    allows researchers to see if several variables share enough in common so that they can se summarized with a single label
  5. what are "The Big Five"
    openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.
  6. According to Mischel, the "personality coefficient" refers to
    the surprisingly low correlation between a typical measure of personality and behavior
  7. Fishbein and Ajzen argues that to increase the accuracy with which a personality measure predicts a behavior, the behavior should be....
    behavior should measured in several different ways and not just in one way
  8. Bem and allen found that
    some people are more prone to trait like consistency than others
  9. According to Freud, the id operates according to
    The pleasure principle operates the
  10. wishing and fantasizing for food when hungry is
    Id when one is hungry
  11. anal stage is metaphorically the
    creative stage
  12. Girls experience what during Phallic stage
    Penis envy occurs when
  13. Not being able to recall the sexual want for the opposite sexed parent is called
  14. Rogers believed that there is a natural tendency to express ourselves and become out true selves
    Self actualization
  15. The kind of person you are is different from the person whom u want to be
    actual self and ideal self
  16. When focused in on the immediate, subjective experience of the person, it's referred to as
    Phenomenological approach- focus is on the_________ experience
  17. Behaviorist argue that to explain personality psychologist should focus on
    the reinforcers and punishers in the external environments- told to focus on by.. to..
  18. What approach emphasizes the continuity and consistency in behavior across situations and over time.
    Trait, over time and across situation emphasizes the what
  19. Psychodynamic Approach
    The approach that's the common core, foundation of someone's personality.
  20. Phenomenological Approach
    Approach that you are unique and should work towards that.
  21. What occurs when prejudicial attitudes are expressed in behavior?
  22. When making attributions, what cause is a cause of behavior that is based on environmental factors?
  23. What states that we tend to overemphasize dispositional causes and underemphasize situational causes of others' actions?
    Fundamental attribution error
  24. "That would never happen to me" is an example of what attrubution
    Defensive attribution
  25. Reduces the change that a victim will get help from a crowd
    Diffusion of responsibility
  26. One of the reasons a masked ball and costume parties are exciting is because of the effects of
  27. The fact that we constantly try to make sense out of the behavior of ourselves and others is related to which concept?
  28. The study of motivation consists of
    the "why" of the human behavior
  29. what is homeostasis?
    keeping things balanced
  30. What are primary motives?
    Sexual wants and aggression, Libido and Thanatos
  31. What brain structure is important for eating
  32. What is bulimia & anorexia nervosa
    eat then puke; starving with over exercize
  33. What are the characteristics of high need for achievement
    Desire to excel to master difficult challenges, do job faster, work harder
  34. What happens when extrinsic rewards are given for an intrinsically rewarding activity?
    grow not to like something that you once liked
  35. What is the order of Maslow's need hierarchy
    • Biological- food and water;
    • Safety- security and comfort;
    • Belongingness- to be loved and love;
    • Esteem- need for confidence;
    • Self-Actualization- have meaningful goals
  36. Canon- Bard theory of emotion
    "I ran and was afraid at the same time"- processing of emotion and physical response occur at the same time.
  37. James- Lange theory of emotion
    "I ran then I was afraid"- environment causes physical change, leading to behavior, leading to emotion.
  38. Schacter- Singer theory of emotion/ cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
    joint effort of physical arousal and what we think.
  39. Aggressive behavior as defined is
    Intentional harm to others
  40. What is the facial feedback theory of emotion?
    Changing facial expressions can actually change someone's emotions.
  41. How something is said may be more important than the actual meaning of the words spoken. The "how it is said" refers to
  42. The meaning of staring depends on
    Visual Behavior
  43. What are theoretical constructs
    Inferred concepts in traits used to explain behavior
  44. What is nomothetic approach?
    Comparing people to people, similarities in traits and their varying degrees
  45. What is the purpose of Factor Analysis?
    To summarize several variables with a single label
  46. What are introverts and extroverts
    shy, reserved; outgoing, social
  47. Describe each of the "big five" factors.
    • Openness- imaginatice, curious
    • Conscientiousness- organized, preserving
    • Extroversion- socialize, energetic
    • Agreeableness- sympathetic, kind
    • Neuroticism- guilt-prone
  48. What was the point of Funder and Ozer study?
    Situational factors don't account for anymore variation in peoples' behavior than traits.
  49. Two major categories of instincts according to Freud?
    • Libido- life and sexual
    • Thanatos- death
  50. The id operates according to the
    Instincts/ pleasure principal
  51. What is the Id?
    The instincts> pleasure principle that reduces tension; primary process- confusing fantasy with reality; wish-fulfillment- imagining what u need.
  52. Pleasure Principle
    The motive behind almost everything, tension reduction.
  53. Primary process
    Confusing fantasy for reality
  54. Wish-fulfillment
    imagining what u need
  55. What is Ego?
    Reality, tries to obtain what will satisfy the instinct. Reality Principle- separate fantasy from reality. Secondary Process- cognitive and intellectual skills
  56. Reality principle
    Separates fantasy form reality
  57. Secondary Process
    Rational skills that enable us to get though our daily lives and survive, cognitive and intellectual skills.
  58. What is Superego
    Morals. Conscience-knowing and feeling guilt. Ego-ideal- knowing and feeling pride. Introjection- accepting and indentifying the value system taught by parents.
  59. Conscience
    Knowing and feeling guilty when a person has done wrong
  60. Ego-Ideal
    Knowing and feeling pride when a person has done right
  61. Introjection
    accepting and identifying the value system set by parents
  62. The largest portion of the mind operation beyond our awareness is the
  63. Conscious
    what a person is currently thinking
  64. Preconscious
    What a person could bring to their awareness, you know something, you're just not thinking about it currently.
  65. Unconscious
    thoughts and feelings kept oiut of awareness
  66. Oral stage of develpoment
    metaphor for love, gullible and needy, verbally hurt someone.
  67. Oral Incorporative stage
    Are gullible and needy for love, symbolically achieved through mouth stimulation like smoking or eating.
  68. Oral Sadistic Stage
    Using words to harm other
  69. Anal stage of develpoment
    Creative metaphor, neat and controled or wasteful and disorderly
  70. Anal Retentive Fixation
    An adult who is neat and controlled
  71. Anal Expulsive Fixation
    A person who is rebellious towards authority and irresponsible.
  72. Phallic Stage of development
    Curious about genitals and identity. Boy falling in love with mother, girl with father.
  73. Oedipal Conflict
    Boy falls in love with mother and wants to get rid of father
  74. Castratuion anxiety
    Boy in love with mother fearing that father will hurt him for the mother.
  75. Repress
    Stop trying to compete for mother, and try to be more like father for mother's attention.
  76. Penis Envy
    Girl's want for a penis and the societal benefits that accompany it
  77. Latency stage of development
    Non sexual, buddy stage of development. Superego is developed
  78. Genital stage of development
    In this stage of development, you learn to love someone other than yourself and do valued work in the community.
  79. Substitute & symbolic forms of instinctual gratification are called
  80. Displacement
    substituting an object which symbolically represents the object which would satisfy an instinct
  81. Yelling at the dog(substitute) instead of your boss(symbolic) is an example of
  82. Sublimation
    a form of displacement in which the symbolic activity is valued by the culture
  83. Becoming a surgeon to satisfy the aggressive instinct is an example of
  84. Repression
    preventing an unpleasant thought from breaking into awareness.
  85. Forgetting an embarrassing statement from an argument is an example of
  86. Denial
    Shifting your attention away from a threat and ignore what upsets you.
  87. Not applying the dangers of smoking to yourself is an example of
  88. Projection
    Placing a thought or feeling of your own onto someone else.
  89. The statement "They hate me" is an example of
  90. Reaction formation
    Expressing the opposite of what you feel
  91. Rationalization
    an excuse or reason to justify an action.
  92. "Everybody does it" is an example of
  93. Self-actualization
    movement towards being ourselves
  94. Conditional positive regard
    Accepting someone if they meet certain standards
  95. Behaviorists argue that to explain personality psychologists should focus on
    the external and environmental influences
  96. 3 Components of attutudes
    Affective- feeling; Behavior; Cognitive-thoughts and beliefs
  97. Roger's subjective experience
    immediate experience, free to choose our own actions.
  98. Stimulus control
    Behavior controlled by stimulus cues in the environment, like the boss shows up so u act like you're working
  99. Unconditional positive regard
    Loving someone as they are
  100. Primacy Effect
    The importance of first impressions
  101. Internal Cause of Behavior
    A person's personality effected behavior
  102. External Cause of behavior
    Environmental cause of behavior, test was easy so I got an A.
  103. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Internal or personality explanations for another's behavior are preferred.
  104. Self-serving Bias
    Assigning internal causes for good outcomes and external causes for bad outcomes.
  105. Defensive Attribution
    Blaming the victim helps us feel safer
  106. Belief in a just world
    people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
  107. Interrole Conflict
    having 2 identities, ex being a parent and a college student.
  108. Intrarole Conflict
    Conflicting demands within a role, loving and punishing a child as a parent.
  109. A change in behavior brought to you by real or imagined group preassure
  110. The desire to be correct ________ Conformity
    Informational Conformity
  111. Desire to be liked _______ Conformity
    Normative Conformity
  112. The change in attitude or behavior because of direct request
  113. A compliance technique in which the initial commitment is followed by a change in the deal
  114. Saying no to a big request makes a person more likely to say yes to a smaller yet
  115. Saying yes to a small request makes a person more likely to say yes to a larger request
  116. Neutral Stimulus
    anything that doesn't associate any emotion within you.
  117. When attitude doesn't match behavior it's called
    cognitive dissonance
  118. Earlier information about someone weighs more than later information is ____ effect.
    Primacy Effect
  119. Constantly trying to make sense of out behavior and that of others is called
    Attribution Theory
  120. Blaming peoples personality rather than situation is called
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  121. 2 Main types of attribution a person can make
    Internal and external
  122. Social conventions that regulate human life, like explicit laws & implicit cultural standards are
    Social Norms
  123. Following orders is _____ence
  124. Commitment and Intimacy in a relationship but no passion
    Compassionate love
  125. Attraction led by frequent meetings is called
  126. You like them because they like you
    reciprocity of liking
  127. helping others by sacrifice on the part of the helper
  128. Responsibility of acting in an emergency situation is shared among those present is called
    Diffusion of responsibility
  129. Intentional harm against living things
    how aggression is defined by most psychologists.
  130. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
    frustration is directly linked to aggression
Card Set
Psychology test 2 Nagmita
College level psychology, YSU Dr. Fry's class
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