Articulations-- Functional Classification

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  1. Functional classification
    dependent on the degree of movement that occurs at the joint area
  2. Structural classificaiton
    dependent on presence or absence of joint cavity and the type of material that joins the two bones together
  3. What are the three types of functional classification?
    • Synarthrosis—no movement occurs
    • Amphiarthroses—slightly movable joint
    • Diarthroses—highly movable joint
  4. Synarthroses
  5. Types of Synarthroses
    • suture
    • synchrondosis
    • synostosis and bone
    • gomphosis
  6. Suture
    Suture: where two bones are joined by a thin layer of dense connective tissue; only found in the skull of vertebrates

    Ex: coronal suture
  7. Synchondrosis
    Synchondrosis: bones are joined by hyaline cartilage

    ex: epiphyseal plate
  8. Synostosis and bone
    Snyostosis and bone are joined by plates of bone--> that's when the epiphyseal plate becomes the epiphyseal line, when the cartilage ossifies

    ex: joint between left and right frontal bone
  9. Gomphosis
    Gomphosis--cone shaped peg (bone) fits into the socket of the other bone

    ex: teeth in alveolar processes of the skull
  10. An immovable joint (__). The __ (cartilage) separate the heads of this young femur from the shaft
    • synchondrosis
    • epiphyseal plates
  11. Slightly movable joint (__). The __ of the spinal column separate the centra of adjacent vertebrae.
    • amphiarthrosis
    • intervertebral discs
  12. Amphiarthroses
    slightly movable joints; almost imperceptible movement
  13. Types of amphiarthroses
    • symphysis
    • syndesmosis
  14. Symphysis
    • bones are held together or separated by fibrocartilage
    • –Pubic symphysis in the pelvic girdle
    • –Intervertebral disks in mammals
  15. Syndesmosis
    • bones are held together by a relatively thick, dense, fibrous CT
    • -- distal end of the tibia and fibula
  16. Diarthroses
    • freely movable 
    • (all have a joint cavity, which allows mobility)
  17. Types of diarthroses
    • hinge
    • pivot
    • ball and socket
    • condyloid
    • gliding
    • saddle
  18. Hinge
    convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another bone in such a way that it only allows movement in one direction; monoaxial joint
  19. examples of hinge joints
    elbow: distal end of humerus and proximal end of ulna

    knee: distal end of femur and proximal end of tibia

    interphalageal joints: between adjacent phalanges in the toes and fingers
  20. Condyloid (ellipsoidal)
    spherical head of one bone fits into an elliptical cavity; biaxial, which means two planes
  21. Examples of condyloid
    distan end of metatarsals 2-5; proximal and distal phalange

    atlas and occipital condyles

    wrist joint
  22. Ball and socket
    rounded head of one bone fits into a capsule of another bone, allowing for movement in three planes-- triaxial
  23. examples of ball and socket
    hip joint: head of femur with the acetabulum of the pelvic bone

    shoulder: head of the humerus with the glenoid fossa of the scapula
  24. Pivot
    aka: rotary joint

    one bone turns on another; monoaxial
  25. Examples of pivot
    between atlas and axis

    between the proximal and distal ends of the radius and ulna
  26. Plane (Gliding joint)
    flat surface of one bone and a flat surface of another bone; restricted biaxial
  27. examples of plane
    • between the carpals or tarsals
    • pre-and postzygapophyses
    • between costal facets of T vertebrae and the ribs
  28. Saddle joint
    concave surface of one bone fits over convex surface of another bone; biaxial similar to ellipsoidal
  29. example of saddle joint
    first metacarpal and greater multangular of the carpals
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Articulations-- Functional Classification
Test Two
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