A&P2 - Test 1

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  1. More surface area means more...?
    exchange with the environment (heat, O2)
  2. The exchange of O2 with all the cells in the body
    Internal respiration
  3. The exchange of O2 with the lungs?
    External respiration
  4. Does the body measure O2 or CO2?
  5. This kicks in when the body is trying to return to homeostasis, it acts like a thermostat
    Negative feedback
  6. This is like the snowball effect and it amplifies a stimulus and does not contribute to homeostasis
    Positive feedback
  7. The overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal
  8. What does bioenergetics determine?
    how much food an animal needs and it relates to an animal's size, activity, and environment
  9. This is how energy is allocated and used for body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material and production of gametes
  10. Chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system to communicate regulatory messages within the body
  11. Hormones reach all parts of the body but only ??? have receptors for that hormone?
    Target cells
  12. What two systems coordinate communication throughout the body?
    • endocrine
    • nervous
  13. Neurotransmitters react ???, while hormones travel throughout the body
  14. Neurotransmitters can be released by what two systems?
    • Nervous system
    • Gland system
  15. The target cell lies near the secreting cell in this type of hormone signaling
  16. The target cell is also the secreting cell in this type of hormone signaling
  17. Molecules that act over short distances, reaching target cells solely by diffusion
    Local regulators
  18. Name 4 local regulators
    • Cytokines
    • Growth factors
    • Nitric oxide
    • Prostaglandins
  19. This local regulator promotes fever, inflammation, regulates platelets, and intensifies the sensation of pain
  20. What is it called when Neurotransmitters diffuse short distances and bind to receptors on target cells
    Synaptic signaling
  21. What is it called when specialized neurohormones travel to target cells via the bloodstream?
    Neuroendocrine signaling
  22. This type of hormone is secreted by exocytosis, travels freely in the bloodstream, and binds to cell-surface receptors
  23. This type of hormone diffuses across cell membranes, travels in the bloodstream bound to transport proteins, and diffuse through the membrane of target cells
  24. What causes a hormonal response in water-soluble hormones?
    receptor initiates a signal transduction
  25. The response to a lipid-soluble hormone is usually?
    a change in gene expression
  26. When a second hormone assists they work more effectively, this is called?
    Synergistic effect
  27. Some hormones oppose the action of others, this is called?
    Antagonistic effect
  28. The inability to produce insulin?
    DM 1
  29. What part of the brain coordinates the nervous system and endocrine system to work together?
  30. This part of the pituitary gland stores and secretes hormones made in the hypothalamus
    Posterior pituitary
  31. This part of the pituitary makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus
    anterior pituitary
  32. Too little thyroid function, symptoms like weight gain, lethargy, cold intolerance
  33. excessive production of thyroid hormone, symptoms like high temp, sweating, weight loss, irritability, high blood pressure
  34. The adrenal glands secrete what hormone that is regulated by negative feedback?
    glucocorticoids (cortisol AKA hydrocortisone)
  35. Name the two sections of the adrenal glands
    • cortex
    • medulla
  36. The adrenal cortex hormones have fast or slow effects?
    slower effects
  37. The adrenal medulla hormones have fast of slow effects on the body?
    fast acting - fight or flight
  38. This is any type of harmful stress that may be damaging.
  39. This is helpful, everyday stress that prepares us to meet challenges.
  40. Exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called
  41. The acini of the pancreas produce what?
    digestive enzymes
  42. Glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide are secreted by what?
    Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans)
  43. refers to all of the chemical reactions taking place in the body
  44. Reactions that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are
    catabolic (decomposition)
  45. Reactions that combine simple molecules to make complex molecules are
    anabolic (synthesis)
  46. ThisĀ is the energy molecule that couples the two types (anabolic and catabolic) of reactions.
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  47. Pumping uphill to allow it to flow downhill
  48. Glucose not needed immediately is stored as
  49. The process that creates glycogen
  50. When ATP is needed for body activities, stored glycogen is broken down by a process called
  51. The hormone that helps to decrease adiposity (body fat mass).
  52. The hormone that stimulates food intake
    Neuropeptide Y
  53. the hormone that inhibits food intake?
  54. inorganic elements (not carbon based) that play important roles in maintaining a healthy body
  55. nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. Most cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in foods.
  56. In chemical digestion, the process of ??? splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water
    enzymatic hydrolysis
  57. Name the 3 salivary glands
    • parotic
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  58. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides to disaccharides
    chemical digestion
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A&P2 - Test 1
A&P2 - Test 1
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