eco and evo exam 2

  1. hermaphrodites
    function as both male and female
  2. sponges
    • sessile
    • no true tissue (no nerves or muscles)
    • mostly marine
    • hermaphrodites
    • filter feeders (collect food particles from water)
  3. osculum
    a large aperture in a sponge through which water is expelled.
  4. how does water get into sponge
    through porocytes (cells with a hole)
  5. choanocyte
    let in water with particles in the cells of the sponge
  6. flagella in sponge
    swing to get food particles
  7. amoebocyte
    transports food around to the rest of the sponge
  8. spongocoel
    big hole inside sponge
  9. spicules
    skeleton of sponges, identify as sponges
  10. mesohyl
    keeps together the structure of the sponge
  11. where did animals probably evolve from?
    colonial, flagellated protists (like choanoflagellate)
  12. two stages of jellyfish
    • polyp (sessile)
    • medusa (the polyp flips around, moves around to reproduce)
  13. cnidarians
    • polyp and medusa forms
    • bilaterial symmetry with central digestive cavity (gastrovascular)
    • one opening for mouth and anus
    • carnivores
  14. cnidocytes
    • specialized cells that forms the phylum cnidarians
    • stinging cells used for defense and to capture prey
  15. how many classes of cnidarians
    3, mostly marine
  16. which cells are haploid in jellyfish
    sex cells (both the medusa and polyp are diploid) who can choose to  produce sexually or not.
  17. what is an advantage of forming medusa and moving around?
    • more genetic variation by budding off 
    • asexual has no increase in genetic variation
  18. tentacles of cnidocyte
    thread is discharged when "triggered" and can be used to capture prey
  19. purple striped jelly
    pelagia panopyra
  20. phylum ctenophora
    • comb jellies
    • resemble cnidarian medusas
    • use cilia for locomotion
  21. phylum platyhelminthes
    • flatworms
    • range from microscopic to 20 meters long
    • many are parasites
    • ganglia (not as organized as brain)
    • ventral nerve cords t/o body
    • gastroveascular cavity
  22. class turbellaria
    • flatworms
    • mostly free living (non-parasitic)
    • feed on small animal, dead animals
    • flat for O2 exchange, they have no gas exchange organisms
  23. trematoda
    • live as parasites
    • parasitize vertebrates (infect humans and intermediate hosts)
    • male and female form in one and go into humans (reproduce sexually), come out through feces, indirect development in water, go into snail (reproduce asexually), larvae penetrate skin and reproduce sexually inside humans
  24. class cestoidea
    • tapeworms
    • live as parasites
    • head contains suckers and hooks that lock onto the intestinal lining of host
    • rest of body is units called proglottids (sex organs)
    • eggs transferred to new hosts by consuming fecal contaminated water
  25. rotifera
    • small
    • has complete digestive tract
  26. lophophorate phyla (bryozoans, phoronids, brachiopods)
    • has lophophore (horseshoe shaped fold near the mouth that is surrounded by ciliated tentacles)
    • bryozoans (like mosses, have hard exoskeleton, important reef builders)
    • phoronids are marine worms
    • brachiopods resemble clams, mouth w/ tentacles
  27. phylum nemertea
    • proboscis (ribbon) worms
    • 30 meters in length
    • hydraulically operated proboscis (long nose) used to capture prey
    • closed circulatory system
  28. phylum mollusca
    • snails, clams, octopi, squids (huge eyes), oysters
    • huge brains
    • have similar body plans (muscular foot, visceral mass with organs, mantle that secretes the shell)
  29. radula
    hard parts to scrape substrate (beak in octopus)
  30. bivalvia
    • big heart
    • gills (blue are used for O2 exchange and use gills to feed
  31. mussels
    little threads (byssal threads) attach to substrate, so it's hard to separate from rock
  32. cephalopoda
    • very developed nervous system
    • octopus, squid, nautilus
  33. segmented worm (annelida)
    • oligochaeta (earthworms)
    • polychaeta (mostly marine)
    • hirudinea (leeches)
  34. phylum annelida
    • 1mm to 3m
    • each segment contains a pair of excretory tubes called metanephridia
    • hermaphrodites that cross-fertilize
  35. ecdysozoa, phylum nematoda
    • roundworms
    • non-segmented
    • some are important parasite of animals
    • pinworms and hookworms, obtained by eating undercooked pork; juveniles infect all body organs and tissues
  36. classes of arthropod
    • arachnida
    • diplopoda (millipedes)
    • chilopoda (centipedes)
    • insecta
    • crustacea (crabs, lobsters, crayfish)
  37. examples of arthropods and their unique characteristics
    • crustaceans, spiders, insects
    • hard exoskeleton, segmented bodies, jointed appendages
    • most successful of all animal phyla based on diversity, distribution and numbers
    • ecdysis (molting of the cuticle)
    • extensive cephalization (concentration of sense organs/nervous control in front of the body)
    • open circulatory system
    • aquatic members (gills for gas exchange)
    • terrestrial (tracheal leading from surface t/o the body)
  38. what are four arthropod lineages
    • trilobites (extinct)
    • chelicerates (horseshoe crabs, spiders)
    • uniramians (centipedes, millipedes, insects)
    • crustaceans (crabs, lobster)
    • from these lineages arose five major classes of arthropods
  39. insects info
    • outnumber all other forms of animals
    • evolved during Carboniferous period
    • wings are extensions of the cuticle
    • waste is removed from hemolymph by malpighian tubes
    • nervous system has ventral nerve chords that join in the head to form brain (cerebral ganglion) close to head (cephalization)
  40. malpighian tubes
    excretory organ where waste is removed from hemolymph (in insects)
  41. incomplete metamorphosis in insects
    look like adults, but have different body proportions
  42. complete metamorphosis for insects
    • larval stages are specialized for eating
    • adult stage is specialized fro reduction and dispersal
    • metamorphosis occurs during a pupal stage
  43. echinoderms
    • starfish, sea urchins
    • water vascular system: network of hydraulic canals used for locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange
    • extends tube feet used for locomotion and feeding
    • echinoderms appear to be radial but are bilateral in larval stages
  44. molecular evidence puts the origin of animals at how long ago?
    1 bya
  45. acoelomates
  46. pseudo-coelomates and coelomates
    • pseudo-coelomates (body cavity not enclosed by mesoderm) like nematodes
    • coelomates (body cavity enclosed by mesoderm), like humans
  47. protostomia
    • coelom from cell masses
    • blastopore becomes mouth (snails, worms, insects)
  48. deuterostomia
    • coelom from digestive tube
    • blastopore becomes anus (starfish, echinodermata, chordata (humans))
  49. why are fungi more close to animals
    b/c they are heterotrophs and no cell walls (membrane is made of chitin, spores)
  50. choanoflagellate
    unicellular with flagella
  51. heterotrophic
    energy from other animals
  52. plants store what
  53. sponges don't have
    nervous system or tissue
  54. skate
    direct development (eggs look like adult)
  55. general characteristics of animals
    • multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes
    • feed by ingestion
    • lack cell walls (held together by structural proteins like collagen)
    • nervous and muscle tissue
    • store carbohydrate reserves as glycogen
    • reproduce sexually with 2N embryo
  56. why do somatic cells give up reproduction?
    b/c they are clones of each other, some decide to reproduce, some doesn't
  57. embryonic development of animal
    • zygote undergoes cleavage (series of mitotic cell divisions), results in blastula (a hollow ball of cells)
    • then gastrula (2 layered, cup shaped cluster of cells)
  58. how are the same genes cause different development of animals
    depends on the sequence in which the box genes are turned on or off.
  59. salmon
    direct development
  60. whats the difference in viewing the phylogenetic tree of animals?
    • traditional view of animal diversity is based on anatomy and embryology
    • newer trees are based on molecular evidence
  61. eumetazoa
    • compromise of all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa and other obscure life forms
    • all have tissue differentiation
  62. radial symmetry vs. bilateral
    • bilateral (left/right)
    • radial (all symmetrical like jellyfish)
  63. modern phyla of animal developed in how long?
    40 million years
  64. when did nearly all major body plans appear?
    cambrian explosion
  65. what caused the cambrian explosion?
    • development of predators and evolution of prey escaping, predator hunting
    • oxygen levels
    • hox genes
  66. cniderians were though to be what if we only had genetic info about them?
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eco and evo exam 2
exam 2