1. By 1880s long cattle drives no longer economically feasible

    The introduction of barbed wire by cattle ranchers ended the open range—cattle could no longer fend for themselves

    Blizzard of 1886 suddenly ends open-range cattle industry
    Demise of the Cattle Kingdom
  2. The closing of the frontier led Americans to consider overseas expansion

    Social DarwinismJosiah Strong Our CountryAlfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

    Sources of raw materials, markets for manufactured goods, coaling stations for navies
    Motives For Imperialism
  3. American sugar plantations in Hawaii 1830s, 1840s

    Descendants of American missionaries dominate the monarchy, control the islands

    1887 monarchy granted U.S. permission to build naval base at Pearl Harbor

    1890 McKinley Tariff Act raised tax on Hawaiian sugar

    1893 Americans on Hawaii overthrow Queen Liliuokalani, seek annexation to U.S.

    1898 U.S. annexes Hawaii
    American Imperialism in Hawaii
  4. Cuban war for independence against Spain

    Use of atrocities and concentration camps by Spain

    American public opinion supported Cubans

    The Yellow PressExplosion of the American battleship Maine

    U.S. declares war on Spain April 1898

    Teller Amendment
    Spanish-American War 1898
  5. U.S. navy destroyed Spanish fleet in Philippines

    August 1898 U.S. troops and Philippine guerillas capture Manila

    July U.S. annexes Hawaii

    U.S. troops capture CubaTheodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
    Spanish-American War 1898
  6. Spain surrendered Philippines to U.S.

    Cuba gained independence

    Spain ceded Puerto Rico to U.S.

    Debate in Congress over status of Philippines, Cuba

    U.S. annexed the Philippines
    Results of Spanish-American War
  7. Emilio Aguinaldo, Philippine nationalist leader

    U.S. deploys 126,000 troops to subdue Philipinnos

    Three-year guerilla war, vicious fighting, atrocities

    Insurrection defeated in 1901
    Philippinos Rebel Against U.S.
  8. Philippines annexed, U.S. colony until 1946

    Cuba gains independenceThe Platt AmendmentU.S. granted Guantanamo naval base

    Puerto Rico, Guam remain U.S. territoriesPuerto Ricans granted U.S. citizenship in 1917
    Results of Spanish-American War
  9. Assassin was an anarchist

    Third president to be assassinated

    Vice-president Theodore Roosevelt became president
    President William McKinley Assassinated September 6, 1901
  10. Believed in strong presidency

    Proclaimed Western hemisphere as America’s sphere of influence

    Proclaimed U.S. would exercise international police power in hemisphere
    Vice-president Theodore Roosevelt became president
  11. U.S. wanted canal across Central America to link the Atlantic with Pacific

    TR chose Panama, then a part of Colombia, Columbia rejected U.S. offer to buy Panama

    TR helps incite revolt in Panama against Colombia, Panama gains independence

    Panama negotiates treaty granting U.S. the canal zone

    Canal built 1904-1914
    Building of the Panama Canal
  12. TR announced U.S. would assume responsibility for debts of Latin American nations to Europe (to prevent Europe from intervening)

    Meant U.S. could intervene in Latin America but no one else would be permitted to

    U.S. would intervene repeatedly in Latin American nations—Cuba (1906), Nicaragua, Haiti, Dominican Republic (1905)
    The “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine
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