Repro2- Bovine Infertility and Pregnancy

  1. What are the 3 general scenarios for a herd infertility problem?
    "no production" of pregnancies, "low production" of pregnancies, "producing" normally but loss of pregnancies is high
  2. What are 2 scenarios for infertility at the individual level?
    inability to conceive, conception followed by loss of pregnancy
  3. What are the 4 components of a reproductive examination on a problem breeding cow?
    palpation per rectum and ultrasonography, vaginal exam, evaluation of perineal conformation, diagnostic low volume flush for uterine cytology and culture
  4. Normal ovulatory sized follicles in a cow are ________; by definition, follicular cysts are ________ and are ________, meaning they do not form a CL within ________.
    15-20mm; >20-15mm; persistent; 7-10 days
  5. What are 2 pathologic causes of follicular cysts?
    abornormal/absent LH surge, decreased circulating estrogen
  6. What are 2 types of steroidogenically active follicular cysts?
    predominant estrogen production, predominant progesterone production
  7. With a follicular cyst that is producing estrogen, clinical signs include... (2)
    nymphomania (constantly in heat), decreased milk production
  8. With a follicular cyst that is producing progesterone, clinical signs include... (2)
    prolonged interestrus interval, anestrus
  9. Describe the treatment of a follicular cyst.
    GnRH/hCG injection--(7-10days)--> PGF injection
  10. Follicular cysts are most commonly seen in dairy cows during the ___________.
    first 2 months post-partum
  11. What is the challenge with cystic beef cows, and how have we been treating them (albeit unsuccessfully)?
    often become chronically cystic and unresponsive to treatment; hCG injection --(24hr)--> transvaginal follicle aspiration +CIDR--(14 days)--> recheck and PGF injection
  12. Luteal cysts typically arise from...
    old follicular cysts that become partially lutinized.
  13. How do you treat luteal cysts?
    PGF injection; if not responsive, use same treatment as follicular cyst
  14. A cystic CL is aka a _________; they are physiologically _________; treatment?
    hollow CL; normal; no treatment necessary
  15. What are the most common ovarian tumors in cows?
    granulosa-theca cell tumors
  16. What is the treatment and prognosis for granulosa-theca cell tumors?
    benign- surgical removal; contralateral ovary should maintain reproductive potential
  17. Inflammation of the uterine tubes and accumulation of fluid.
    salpingitis- hydosalpinx
  18. What are the physiological effects of salpingitis/hydrosalpinx? (3)
    blocks egg and sperm/embryo transport, environment not conducive to fertilization, adhesions in the uterine tract
  19. What are predisposing factors for salpingitis/hydrosalpinx? (5)
    dystocia, RFM, postpartum metritis, first calf heifer, ET donor cow
  20. For pyometra to develop, there MUST be a(n) __________.
    function CL present
  21. Clinical signs of pyometra. (3)
    pesudopregnancy, anestrus, enlarged/pus-filled uterus
  22. How do you treat pyometra?
    PGF injection (dump shot)
  23. Mucometra does not require a ________ to be present.
  24. Mucometra is often secondary to __(3)__ pathologies, such as... (3)
    oviductual, uterine, or cervical; salingitis, endometritis, or cervical onstruction.
  25. What is the treatment and prognosis for mucometra?
    txt is difficult b/c underlying cause is often chronic; poor prognosis due to endometrial atrophy
  26. Uterine abscesses are secondary to...
    severe endometritis, iatrogenic- AI, ET flushes
  27. What is te treatment and prognosis for uterine abscesses?
    txt difficult; prognosis poor
  28. Idiopathic infertility in heifers is usually ________; in cows, it is usually ________.
    inherited; acquired
  29. For in vitro fertilization, oocytes are flushed and cultured until the _________, which takes about ________ in culture.
    morula/blastocyst; 6-7 days
  30. What are the 4 positive signs of pregnancy?
    membane slip, aminotic vesicle, palpation of fetus, placentomes
  31. The fetal membrane slip is palpation of the _________ and can be felt in the gravid horn _________ and _________ in the non-gravid horn.
    chorioallantois; 30-35 days; after 70 days
  32. Palpation of the AV is possible ________.
    28-65 days (after 65, AV relaxes and can palpate fetus)
  33. Palpation of placentomes is possible ___________.
    65 days to term
  34. Palpation of the fetus is possible __________.
    65 days till term
  35. What are supporting signs of pregnancy? (3)
    asymmetry of uterine horns, fluctuance and resiliance of uterine horn, fremitus
  36. Fremitus can be felt _______.
    120 days to term (also after delivery or abortion)
  37. Ultrasonography is reliable at _______.
    day 26
  38. Heartbeat can be found with US at _______.
    24-25 days
  39. What tests are used to endocrinologically diagnose pregnancy? (2)
    PAG test (pregnancy associated glycoproteins), Biopryn test (bovine pregnancy specific protein B)
  40. The tests for prenancy diagnosis (endocrine) are reliable on __(2)__ down to ________ if and only if the cow was previously _________.
    blood or milk; 30 days; open for 90 days
  41. Mummification occurs after formation of the _______ and _________; there must be a ________ and _________.
    placenta; fetal ossification; functional CL; closed cervix
  42. Causes of fetal mummification. (6)
    BVDv, lepto, fungus, mechanical (compression of umbilical a.), uterine torsion, defective placentation
  43. How do you treat a cow with a fetal mummy?
    PGF injection of double dose 2 times for 2-3 days; if non-responsive, give PGE2 to dilate the cervix
  44. Fetal maceration is fetal death and retention with a(n) __________; there is also ________ of the uterus.
    open cervix; bacterial contamination
  45. Treatment of cows with a macerated fetus.
    unrewarding- extensive endometrial damage and infertility
  46. Indications for epidural anesthesia. (2)
    reduce straining to aid in PB manipulation, anesthesia of perineal region
  47. Where should you administer an epidural in cattle? In small ruminants and pigs?
    Cattle: sacrococcygeal space; Other: lumbosacral space
  48. What are complications that can occur with epidurals? (2)
    reduction of maternal assistance (make it difficult to pull a calf vaginally), overzealous epidural dose can cause a cow to go down
  49. Vaginal prolapse is most common in... (2)
    pluriparous cows, cows in late gestation
  50. Describe how vaginal prolapse occurs in late gestation.
    late pregnancy, there is high estrogen--> relaxation of pelvic ligaments--> large fetus increases intra-abdomina pressure--> vaginal prolapse
  51. 3 etiologies of vaginal prolapse.
    late gestation, recumbency (forces organs into pelvic cavity), obesity (pelvic fat)
  52. Describe the steps to vaginal prolapse reduction. (4)
    epidural, clean prolapsed tissue, reduce edema (sugar, hypertonic saline), gentle pressure (palms, not fingers!)
  53. What are surgical methods of fixation after repair of a vaginal prolapse? (3)
    Buhner, Minchev, Winkler (cervicopexy-not really used)
  54. Non-surgical methods of fixation after repair of vaginal prolapse in a ewe. (2)
    ewe spoon, prolapse harness
  55. What is important to remember after placement of a Buhner's suture to repair vaginal prolapse?
  56. What is the modified Minchev technique to fix a prolapsed vagina?
    rod pushed through vaginal lumen and obturator foramen to external hip; Johnson button on outside
  57. Uterine prolapse develops directly after __________ when the ____________.
    parturition; cervix is fully dilated
  58. Etiologies of uterine prolapse. (3)
    hypocalcemia, excessive straining (dystocia), excessive pulling/traction on calf or RFM
  59. What is a huge risk associated with uterine prolapse? What are 2 other risks associated with it?
    rupture of the middle uterine artery, shock from exposure of uterine mucosa, strangulation of abdominal viscera (if contained in prolapse)
  60. Does 1 uterine prolapse increase her likelihood of uterine prolapse in future pregnancies? What about with vaginal prolapse?
    uterine: no; vaginal: yes, likely to recur
  61. What are causes of rectovaginal tears? (2)
    dystocia with overzealous fetal extraction ot incorrect positioning of the fetus
  62. In a urine pooling animal, urine accumulates in the _________, directly caudal to the ________; this leads to a ____________.
    cranial vaginal; cervix; decreased conception rate
  63. How do you repair a urine pooling cow?
    urethral extension
  64. What are the components of the urethral extension surgery?
    epidural, rectal tampon, speculum to visualize; roll up vaginal floor into a tube that starts at the urethral opening to the external opening, so the urine has no where to go but out
  65. Urethral extension surgery involves a _________ incision around the __________; there is a ________ closure; it is important to check __________.
    U-shaped; urethral opening; 2-layer; urethral patency
  66. What are indications to spay a cow? (2)
    prevent pregnancy/estrus in feedlot heifers because associated with reduced growth, pathologic ovaries
  67. What are the 2 approaches to ovariectomy in a cow?
    flank approach (pathologic ovaries), colpotomy (more commonly done)
  68. What are 4 types of instruments used in colpotomy?
    Willis-drop instrument, chain ecraseur, Meagher ovary flute, Kimberling-Rupp instrument
  69. What is the method of hemostasis for ovariectomy?
    crush/stretch vessels (no ligation)
  70. During colpotomy, where do you enter with the instrument?
    through vaginal wall, dorsolateral to cervix
  71. What maternal factors are indications for C-section in a cow? (4)
    small pelvic size**, intrapelvic fat, incomplete cervical dilation, uterine torsion
  72. What fetal factors are indications for a C-section in a cow? (4)
    large/dead fetus, malformation, malpositioning, fetal value>>maternal value
  73. What production should you absolutely not use when C-section is a possibility? Why?
    J-lube; if it gets into the abdomen, it causes massive peritonitis and death
  74. What is the epidural dose for a C-section?
    5-8cc of 2% lidocaine
  75. What is the preferred approach to deliver a live calf by C-section? Why?
    left flank approach; rumen acts as a visceral container
  76. When is a right flank approach warranted for C-section?
    select cases of right horn pregnancy
  77. What is the major disadvantage to left flank (and right flank, for that matter) approach to C-section?
    limited exteriorization of the uterus (don't use this approach if calf is dead/contaminated!)
  78. What are contraindications for a left flank approach to C-section? (2)
    dead/emphysematous fetus, severely contaminated uterine fluid
  79. What are 2 types of incisions for a left flank approach to C-section?
    vertical or oblique incision
  80. When the calf is in anterior presentation, how can you use this to your advantage in left flank approach to C-section?
    hock lock- use metatarsus to lock the leg in the incision- good handle
  81. After C-section, close the uterus with an ________ pattern; 3 types are...
    inverting; cushing, lembert, utrecht
  82. What is an indication for a ventral midline approach to C-section? Why?
    contaminated uterine fluid; almost entire gravid horn can be exteriorized to prevent abdominal contamination
  83. What are ways to reduce the occurance of adhesions after C-section? (5)
    absorbable suture, inverting closure pattern, buried knots, remove blood clots from abdomen, avoid using gauze on uterine surface
Card Set
Repro2- Bovine Infertility and Pregnancy
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