480 definitions

  1. Uniformitarianism
    • Charles Lyell
    • the processes that take place over time are the cause of its form today.
    • ex. Grand Canyon
  2. Survival of the fittest (spencers interpretation)
    • coined by Herbert Spencer
    • groups that are the best would take over; like wealthy European
    • Believed that human behavior strives for self preservation
    • spencer  believed if everyone was wealthy and of the upper crust then things would be better
  3. Social Darwinism
    • based on herbert spencers idea of survival of the fittest
    • theory of evolution that meant progress could only be achieved by the strong dominating the weak.
    • the strongest and fittest will survive and the weak will die out in terms of rich and poor.
    • idea that White upper crust Europeans were superior and dominant.
    • This lead to the practice of eugenics.
  4. Survival of the fittest (darwins interpretation)
    • he meant that “offspring were fit” not who had the most offspring or who was the strongest.
    • those offspring that were best fitted in the environment were most likely to survive and reproduce.
  5. Organic Analogy
    • Herbert Spencer
    • comparing human society to human biology
    • the brain represented white wealthy europeans and everyone else acted like all the other organs working together in order to function
  6. Psychic Unity of Mankind
    • Edward Tylor
    • similarity of human thought around the world
    • all human beings, regardless of culture or race, share the same basic psychological and cognitive make-up
  7. ______ came up with the idea of 3 stages of cultural evolution (ethnical periods). What are they?
    • Lewis Henry Morgan
    • Savagery
    • Barbarism
    • Civilization
  8. Marx theory/concepts of cultural evolution progression
    • Karl Marx
    • Primitive communism – group ownership
    • Feudalism – power based on land ownership
    • Capitalism – free market economy
  9. Hyperdiffusionism
    • Perry & Smith
    • idea that one civilization or people is the creator of all logical and great things which are then diffused to less civilized nation
  10. Diffusion
    • lord Raglan
    • the spread of one idea to another society
    • Cultures learn from one another
  11. Hydraulic theory of organization
    • Karl Wittfogel
    • idea that irrigation is what ultimately leads to modern civilization because agriculture explodes
  12. cultural relativism
    • Pioneered by Franz Boas
    • one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
    • rules of all cultures deserve equal respect
  13. Four Fields
    • Franz Boas
    • Linguistic
    • Archaeology
    • Biological/Physical
    • Socio-Cultural
  14. Historical Particularlism
    • Marvin Harris (Coined it) Boas used it
    • Boas argued that societies were a result of their own unique histories 
    • Harris: Idea that each society is representative of their historical past
  15. Superorganic
    • Alfred Kroeber
    • society is above the individual
  16. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    • Edward Sapir/Benjamin Whorf
    • different languages produce different ways of thinking
    • language itself focuses on how you see the world
  17. Culture areas
    • Wissler
    • cultures were rooted in natural settings and this could detect geographical-cultural regions of cultures
  18. What 3 concepts did Emile Durkheim Pioneer?
    • Collective Conscience
    • Social Fact
    • Social Solidarity
  19. Collective Conscience
    • Emile Durkheim
    • the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to the average citizens of the same society
    • society puts pressure on you to act appropriately.
    • The key to keeping societies together.
  20. Social Facts
    • Emile Durkheim
    • external ways of thinking that guide belief and morals every
    • way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations”
  21. Social Solidarity
    • Emile Durkheim
    • What holds society together
  22. 2 types of social solidarity
    • Mechanical Solidarity
    • Organic Solidarity
  23. Mechanical Solidarity
    • when individuals within societies are alike and self sufficient
    • all individuals have the same roles in society
    • Common with less complex societies
    • All individuals agree on the same thing
  24. Organic Solidarity
    • based on organic analogy – the idea that people have different roles in order to function
    • found in complex societies
  25. Total Social Phenemenon
    • Marcel Mauss
    • a social fact that is so important in the society because it surrounds all institutions of society.
    • ex. Potlatch, nuer, and Kula Ring in trobriands
    • They dictate social relations through economics, religion, ritual, gender, age, leading to rich points within their respective cultures that would ultimately change the culture if removed. 
    • Ex. Education: leads to success, marriage, economics, politics, kinship, etc. Not every society has total social phenomenon
  26. Total Prestations
    • Marcel Mauss
    • idea that the exchange of goods and wealth are made between groups instead of individuals.
  27. Functionalism
    • influenced by Durkheim and Spencer
    • seeks to study the function of cultural institutions in relation to maintaining social order
  28. 2 types of functionalism
    • Psychological
    • Structural
  29. Psychological Functionalism
    • Bronislaw Malinowski
    • cultural institutions function to meet the basic physical and psychological needs of people in a society
    • 7 basic needs
  30. Structural Functionalism
    • A.R. Radcliffe
    • seeks to understand how cultural institutions maintain equilibrium and cohesion in a society
  31. Participant Observation
    • Bronislaw Malinowski
    • long term total emersion in a society; having fluency in the language; participating in the societies way of life
  32. Difference between society and culture?
    • Society is a group of people functioning at the moment
    • culture has time depth and history
Card Set
480 definitions