paint it black

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  1. competetive advantage
    the achievement of superior performance through differentiation to provide superior customer value OR by managing to achieve lowest delivered cost
  2. customer satisfaction
    the fulfilment of customers' requirements or needs
  3. customer value
    perceived benefits minus perceived sacrifice
  4. effectiveness
    doing the right thing, making the correct strategic choice (alltså en marknadsorientering, ear to the market)

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  5. efficiency
    a way of managing business processes to a high standard, usually concerned with cost reduction; also called "doing things right" (produktorientering)

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  6. exchange
    the act or process of receiving something from someone by giving something in return
  7. marketing concept
    the achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer needs better than the competition.

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  8. marketing mix
    • a framework for the tactical management of the customer relationship, including product, place, price, promotion (the 4-Ps); in the case of services three other elements to be taken into account are process, people and physical evidence.
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  9. marketing orientation
    companies with a marketing orientation focus on customer needs as the primary drivers of organizational performance.

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  10. place (4p)
    the distribution channels to be used, outlet locations, methods of transportation
  11. price (4p)
    1) the amount of money paid for a product, 2) the agreed value placed on the exchange by buyer or seller (det är handlar alltså nödvändigtvis inte bara om kontanter utan kan även vara själva tjänsten/utbytet)
  12. production orientation
    • a business approach that is inwardly focused either on costs or on a definition of a company in terms of its production facilities.
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  13. promotional mix
    advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, and Internet and online promotion. Det är alltså fördelningen av resurser på dessa olika promotion-kanaler.
  14. Kritik av 4P?
    • 1. 4P marketing mix förenklar "the reality of marketing management". Därför finns det 7P för service-branscher t.ex.
    • 2. Inom industribranscher handlar det snarare om att bygga långsiktiga relationer än om att hitta en bra marketing mix.

    Jobber menar dock att 4P-s är ett bra ramverk och att det visat sig framgångsrikt genom åren.
  15. business mission
    • the organization's purpose, usually setting out its competitive domain, which distinguishes the business from others of its type. Exempel: 
    • Oxfam: To create lasting solutions to poverty, hunger, and social injustice.

    American Heart Association: To build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

    TED: Spread ideas.
  16. competitive positioning
    consists of three key elements: target markets, competitor targets and establishing a competitive advantage.
  17. competitor analysis
    an examination of the nature of actual and potential competitors, and their objectives and strategies.
  18. competitior targets
    the organizations against which a company chooses to compete directly. (en del i core market strategy)
  19. control (core market strategy)
    the stage in the marketing planning process or cycle when the performance against plan is monitored so that corrective action, if necessary, can be taken
  20. core marekting strategy
    the means of achieving marketing objectives (strategic thrust eller strategic objectives: build, hold, harvest, digest) including tarket markets, competitor targets and competitive advantage
  21. customer analysis
    a survey of who the customers are, what choice criteria they use, how they rate competitive offerings and on what variables they can be segmented
  22. distribution analysis
    an examination of movements in power bases, channel attractiveness, physical distribution and distribution behaviour
  23. macroenvironment
    a number of broader forces that affect not only the company but the other actors in the environment, e.g. social, political, technological and economic factors
  24. market analysis
    the statistical analysis of market size, growth rates and trends
  25. marketing audit
    a systematic examination of a business's marketing environment, objectives, strategies and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues, problem areas and opportunities. (undersökningen kollar på internal och external environments: external: macro, competition och market. internal: operating results, strategic issues analysis, marketing mix effectiveness, marketing structures and systems.)
  26. marketing objectives
    there are two types of marketing objectives: strategic thrust, which dictates which products should be sold in which markets, and strategic objectives, i.e. product-level objectives, such as build, hold, harvest and divest.
  27. marketing planning
    the process by which businesses analyse the environment and their capabilities, decide upon courses of marketing action and implement those decisions.

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  28. key questions - the marketing planning process
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  29. marketing structures
    the marketing framework (organization, training and internal communications) upon which marketing activities are based.
  30. marketing systems
    sets of connected parts (information, planning and control) that support the marketing function
  31. microenvironment
    the actors in the firm's immediate environment that affect its capability to operate effectively in its chosen markets - namely suppliers, distributors, customers and competitors (typ Porter five forces analysis)
  32. product portfolio
    the total range of products offered by the company
  33. strategic business unit
    a business or company division serving a distinct group of customers and with a distinct set of competitors, usually strategically autonomous
  34. strategic issues analysis
    an examination of the suitability of marketing objectives and segmentation bases in the light of changes in the markesplace
  35. strategic objectives
    product-level objectives relating to the decision to build, hold, harvest or divest products
  36. strategic thrust
    the decision concerning which products to sell in which markets
  37. supplier analysis
    an examination of who and where suppliers are located, their competences and shortcomings, the trends affecting them and the future outlook for them
  38. SWOT analysis
    a structured approach to evaluating the strategic position of a business by identifying its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
  39. target market
    a market segment that has been selected as a focus for the company's offerings and communications
  40. consumerism
    organized action against business practices that _are not_ in the interests of consumers
  41. corporate social responsibility (CSR)
    the ethical principle that an organization should be accountable for how its behaviour might affect society and the environment
  42. culture
    the combination of traditions, taboos, values and attitudes of the society in which an individual lives
  43. demography
    changes in the population in terms of its size and characteristics
  44. ecology
    the study of living things within their environment
  45. environmental scanning
    the process of monitoring and analysing the arketing environment of a company
  46. macroenvironment
    a number of broader forces that affect not only the company but also the other actors in the microenvironment
  47. marketing environment
    the actors and forces that affect a company's capability to operate effectively in providing products and services to its customers
  48. microenvironment
    the actors in the firm's marketing environment: customers, suppliers, distributors and competitors
  49. PEEST analysis
    the analysis of the political/legal, economic, ecological/physical, social/cultural and technological environment.
  50. attitude
    the degree to which a customer or prospect likes or dislikes a brand
  51. awareness set
    the set of brands that the consumer is aware may provide a solution to the problem
  52. beliefs
    descriptive thoughts that a person holds about something
  53. buyers
    generally refers to professionals in procurement (upphandling, inhandling, anskaffning). A buyer makes business decisions on purchasing.
  54. buying centre
    a group that is involved in the buying decision (aka a decision-making unit)
  55. choice criteria
    the various attributes (and benefits) people use when evaluating products and services
  56. classical conditioning
    the process of using an established relationship between stimulus and a response to cause the learning of the same response to a different stimulus. (betingning, Pavlovs hundar)
  57. cognitive dissonance
    post-purchase concerns of a consumer arising from uncertainty as to wether a decision purchase was the correct one
  58. cognitive learning
    the learning of knowledge and development of beliefs and attitudes without direct reinforcement. 

    • Cognition is the umbrella term for your learning skills—your ability to process information, reason, remember, and relate.
    • 1. You are taught something,  some new info
    • 2.You think about it
    • 3.You talk about it in your own words
    • 4.You notice how this new info fits into other things that you know.
  59. consumer
    a person who buys goods and services for personal use
  60. consumer decision-making process
    the stages a consumer goes through when buying something, namely: problem awareness, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase and post-purchase evaluation

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  61. customers
    a term used in both consumer and organizational purchasing situations. These are individuals and companies that have an established relationship with a seller (e.g. retailers, producers, manufacturers)
  62. evoked set
    the set of brands that the consumer seriously evaluates before making purchase
  63. geodemographics
    the process of grouping households into geographic clusters based on information such as type of accommodation (boende/bostad), occupation, number and age of children, and ethnic background
  64. information framing
    the way in which information is presented to people
  65. information processing
    the process by which a stimulus is received, interpreted, stored in memory and later retrieved
  66. information search
    the identification of alternative ways of problem-solving
  67. learning
    any change in the content or organization of long-term memory as the result of information processing
  68. lifestyle
    the pattern of living as expressed in a person's activities, interests and opinions
  69. motivation
    the process involving needs that set drives in motion to accomplish goals
  70. operant conditioning
    the use of rewards to generate reinforcement of response. Skinner, behaviourism, belöning och bestraffning
  71. perception
    the process by which people select, organize and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful picture of the world
  72. personality
    the inner psychological characteristics of individuals that lead to consistent responses to their environment
  73. reasoning
    a more complex form of cognitive learning where conclusions are reached by connected thought
  74. reference group
    a group of people that influences an individual's attitude or behaviour
  75. rote learning
    • the learning of two or more concepts without conditioning.
    • Wiki: Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.
  76. selective attention
    the process by which people screen out those stimuli that are neither meaningful to them nor consistent with their experiences and beliefs
  77. selective retention
    the process by which people only retain a selection of messages in memory
  78. vicarious learning
    learning from others without direct experience or reward
  79. DMU
    decision-making unit. A group of people within an organization who are involved in the buying decision (aka buying centre)
  80. interaction approach
    an approach to buyer-seller relations that treats the relationships as taking place between two active parties
  81. JIT
    just-in-time. this concept aims to minimize stocks (lager) by organizing a supply system that provides materials and components as they are required
  82. life-cycle costs
    all the components of costs associated with buying, owning and using a physical product or service (brukskostnader)
  83. modified rebuy
    where a regular requirement for the type of product exists and the buying alternatives are known but sufficient change (e.g. a delivery problem) has occurred require some alteration to the normal supply procedure.
  84. new task
    refers to the first-time purchase of a product or input by an organization
  85. relationship marketing
    the process of creating, maintaining and enhancing strong relationships with customers and other stakeholders
  86. reverse marketing
    the process whereby the buyer attempts to persuade the supplier to provide exactly what the organization wants

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  87. straight rebuy
    refers to a purchase by an organization from a previously approved supplier of a previously purchased item
  88. team selling
    the use of the combined efforts of salespeople, product specialists, engineers, sales managers and even directors to sell products
  89. total quality management
    the set of programmes designed to constantly improve the quality of physical products, services and processes
  90. value analysis
    a method of cost reduction in which components are examined to see if they can be made more cheaply
  91. the pyramid of social responsibility
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  92. business ethics
    the moral principles and values that guide a firm's behaviour
  93. cause-related marketing
    a commercial activity by which businesses and charities or causes form a partnership with each other to market an image or a product for mutual benefit
  94. consumer movement
    an organized collection of groups and organizations whose objective it is to protect the rights of consumers
  95. environmentalism
    the organized movement of groups and organizations to protect and improve the physical environment
  96. ethical consumption
    the taking or purchase decisions not only on the basis of personal interests but also on the basis of the interests of society and the environment
  97. ethics
    the moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual group
  98. fair trade marketing
    the development, promotion and selling of fair trade brands and the positioning of organizations on the basis of a fair trade ethos
  99. internal marketing
    training, motivating and communicating with staff to cause them to work effectively in providing customer satisfaction; more recently the term has been expanded to include marketing to all staff, with the aim of achieving the acceptance of marketing ideas and plans
  100. marketing ethics
    the moral principles and values that guide behaviour within the field of marketing
  101. societal marketing
    focuses on consumers' needs and long-term welfare as keys to satisfying organizational objectives and responsibilities by taking into account consumers' and societies' wider interests rather than just their short-term consumption (antar att man t.ex. inte bör sälja socker då egentligen?)
  102. stakeholder
    an individual or group that either (i) is harmed by or benefits from the company or (ii) whose rights can be violated or have to be respected by the company
  103. stakeholder theory
    this contends that companies are not managed purely in the interests of their shareholders (aktieägarna osv) alone but a broader group including communities associated with the company, employees, customers and suppliers.

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  104. sustainable marketing
    focuses on reducing environmental damage by creating, producing and delivering sustainable solutions while continuing to satisfy customers and other stakeholders
  105. ad hoc research
    a research project that focuses on a specific problem, collecting data at one point in time with one sample of respondents
  106. consumer panel
    household consumers who provide information on their purchases over time
  107. continuous research
    repeated interviewing of the same sample of people
  108. data
    the most basic form of knowledge, the result of observations
  109. descriptive research
    research undertaken to describe customers' beliefs, attitudes, preferences and behaviour
  110. ethnography
    a form of qualitative research which involves detailed and prolonged observation of consumers in the situations which inform their buying behaviour (spionera på ICA t.ex.)
  111. experimental research
    research undertaken in order to establish cause and effect
  112. exploratory research
    the preliminary exploration of a research area prior to the main data-collection stage
  113. focus group
    a group normally of 6-12 consumers brought together for a discussion focusing on an aspect of a company's marketing
  114. in-depth interviews
    the interviewing of consumers individually for perhaps one or two hours, with the aim of understanding their attitudes, values, behaviour and/or beliefs
  115. information
    combinations of data that provide decision-relevant knowledge
  116. Internet surveys
    various methods of gathering qualitative (and in some cases quantitive) data using email or Web-based surveys.
  117. marketing information system
    a system in which marketing information is formally gathered, stored, analysed and distributed to managers in accordance with their informational needs in a regular, planned basis
  118. marketing research
    the gathering of data and information on the market
  119. omnibus survey
    a regular survey, usually operated by a marketing research specialist company, which asks questions of respondents for several clients on the same questionnaire.

    The advantages to the research client include cost savings (because the sampling and screening costs are shared across multiple clients) and timeliness (because omnibus samples are large and interviewing is ongoing).
  120. qualitative research
    exploratory research that aims to understand consumers' attitudes, values, behaviour and beliefs
  121. quantitative research
    a structured study of small or large samples using a predetermined list of questions or criteria
  122. research brief
    a written document stating the client's requirements
  123. research proposal
    a document defining what the marketing research agency promises to do for its client and how much it will cost
  124. retail audit
    a type of continuous research tracking the sales of products through retail outlets
  125. sampling process
    a term used in research to denote the selection of a sub-set of total population in order to interview them
  126. secondary research
    data that have already been collected by another researcher for another purpose
  127. benefit segmentaion
    the grouping of people based on the different benefits they seek from a product. detta är även Haley (1968):s grej i A Decision-Oriented Research Tool av Russel Haley
  128. customized marketing
    the marketing coverage strategy where a company decides to target individual customers and develops separate marketing mixes for each
  129. differential marketing strategies
    market coverage strategies where a company decides to target several market segments and develops separate marketing mixes for each
  130. focused marketing
    a market coverage strategy where a company decides to target one market segment with a single marketing mix
  131. lifestyle segmentation
    the grouping of people according to their pattern of living as expressed in their activities, interests and opinions
  132. macrosegmentation
    the segmentation of organizational markets by size, industry and location
  133. market segmentation
    the process of identifying individuals or organizations with similar characteristics that have significant implications for the determination of marketing strategy
  134. microsegmentation
    segmentation according to choice criteria, DMU structure, decision-making process, buy class, purchasing structure and organizational innovativeness
  135. positioning
    the choice of target market (where company wishes to compete) and differential advantage (how the company wishes to compete).

    • Vidare definition:
    • A marketing strategy that aims to make a brand occupy a distinct position, relative to competing brands, in the mind of the customer. Companies apply this strategy either by emphasizing the distinguishing features of their brand (what it is, what it does and how, etc.) or they may try to create a suitable image (inexpensive or premium, utilitarian or luxurious, entry-level or high-end, etc.) through advertising. Once a brand is positioned, it is very difficult to reposition it without destroying its credibility. Also called product positioning.
  136. profile segmentation
    the grouping of people in terms of profile variables, such as age and socio-economic group, so that marketers can communicate to them
  137. psychographic segmentation
    the grouping of people according to their lifestyle and personality characteristics
  138. repositioning
    • changing the target or differential advantage, or both
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    • Här har vi exempel-case som Sony och Volvo som kanske står inför en repositioning.
  139. target marketing
    the choice of which market segment(s) to serve with a tailored marketing mix.

    • Volvo har riktat in sig på familjer,
    • Microsoft på PFM osv.
  140. undifferentiated marketing
    a market coverage strategy where a company decides to ignore market segment differences and develops a singe marketing mix for the whole market
  141. competitive scope
    the breadth of a company's competitive challenge, e.g. broad or narrow
  142. competitor audit
    a precise analysis of competitor strengths and weaknesses, objectives and strategies
  143. core competences
    the principal distinctive capabilities possessed by a company- what it is really good at
  144. differential advantage
    a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to target customers
  145. differentiation strategy
    the selection of one or more customer choice criteria and positioning the offering accordingly to achieve superior customer value
  146. entry barriers
    barriers that act to prevent new firms from entering market, e.g. high level of investment required
  147. experience curve
    the combined effect of economies of scale and learning as cumulative output inscreases
  148. industry
    a group of companies that market products that are close substitutes to each other
  149. value chain
    the set of a firm's activities that are conducted to design, manufacture, market, distribute and service its products.

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  150. bypass attack
    circumventing the defender's position, usually through technological leap-frogging or diversification
  151. competitive behaviour
    the activities of rival companies with respect to each other; this can take five forms- conflict, competition, co-existence, cooperation and collusion
  152. counter-offensive defence
    a counter-attack that takes the form of a head-on counter-attack, an attack on the attacker's cash cow or an encirclement of the attacker
  153. divest (överlåta, klä av sig, frigöra sig från)
    to improve short-term cash yield by dropping or selling off a product
  154. encirclement attack
    attacking the defender from all sides: i.e. every market segment is hit with every combination of product features
  155. flanking attack
    attacking geographical areas or market segments where the defender is poorly represented
  156. flanking defence
    the defence of a hitherto unprotected marked segment
  157. frontal attack
    a competitive strategy where the challenger takes on the defender head on
  158. guerilla attack
    making life uncomfortable for stronger rivals through, for example, unpredictable price discounts, sales promotions or heavy advertising in a few selected regions
  159. harvest objective
    the improvement of profit margins to improve cash flow even if the longer-term result is falling sales
  160. hold objective
    a strategy of defending a product in order to maintain market share
  161. mobile defence
    involves diversification or broadening the market by redefining the business
  162. niche objective
    the strategy of targeting a small market segment
  163. position defence
    building a fortification around existing products, usually through keen pricing (låga priser) and improved promotion
  164. pre-emptive defence (preemptive=förebyggande)
    usually involves continuous innovation and new product development, recognizing the attack is the best form of defence
  165. strategic alliance
    collaboration between tow or more organizations through, for example, joint revenues, licensing agreements, long-term purchasing and supply agreements, or a joint R&D (research and development) contract to build a competitive advantage

    joint venture - tänk företag som ska gå in i Kina som slår ihop sig.
  166. strategic focus
    the strategies that can be employed to achieve an objective
  167. strategic withdrawal
    holding on to the company's strength while getting rid of its weaknesses
  168. Porter's Five Forces Model
    • In formulating strategies for competitive advantage as well as making sure Waterstone’s
    • increases its high performance in the high street bookselling environment, an appraisal of
    • Michael Porter’s Competitive Forces Model, which is commonly referred to as Porter’s Five
    • Forces Model is necessary. This model is by far the most broadly used framework for
    • evaluation of profit potential, market advantage and entrepreneurial strengths of an organisation
    • (Porter, 1980: 4). Below is a diagrammatic representation of Porter’s Five Forces, a model for
    • industry analysis and a blueprint for strategic marketing strategy.

    • Threat of new entrants: ny teknik kanske sänker inträdeshinder? Böcker börjar säljas på internet och på ICA, hur påverkar detta små bokhandlare? Stora?
    • Bargain power of suppliers: hur beroende är vi av dem? osv
    • Bargain power of customers: hur fragmenterade är kundernas intresseorgan? ju mer identiska produkter (homogena varor), desto lägre priselasticitet hos konsumenter och högre inflytande på pris och produkt.
    • Threat of substitutes: e-böcker som substitut till vanliga böcker,  If substitution is easy
    • and substitution is viable, then this weakens your power.
    • Competetive rivalry: finns det många nära konkurrenter? hur mycket kan vi göra för att påverka situationen? Avoiding price competition; Differentiating their product; Buying out competition; Reducing
    • industry over-capacity; Focusing on different market segments and communicate with
    • competitors.
  169. responses to environmental change
    • Först har vi hinder för reaktion:
    • *Ignorance 
    • *Delay 
    • Sen har vi de faktiska reaktionerna:
    • *retrenchment (Sony till en början)
    • *graudal strategic repositioning (Tesco, senare Sony)
    • *radical strategic repositioning (Nokia)

    Skulle säga att Sony och Ericsson är relevanta case att ta upp här. Även Lego och Thomas Cook-exemplen ur Jobber.
  170. Strategic marketing fit
    Här kan vi se hur viktig the marketing environment (internal, macro and micro) är för företagets val av marknadsföringsstrategi:

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  171. Hur analysera: Marketing environment?
    • När vi analyserar market environment med utgångspunkt i vår firma bör vi titta på
    • macro- micro och internal-nivå. 
    • Macro= PEST-analys
    • Micro= SWOT, Porter Five Forces, consumer/organizational behaviour
    • Internal environment är också en del av SWOT-analysen, vilka styrkor och kompetenser besitter vårt företag? vilka problem har vi internt?
  172. market development
    Ansoff model

    • The expansion of the total market for a product or company by
    • (1) entering new segments of the market,
    • (2) converting nonusers into users, and/or
    • (3) increasing usage per user.

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  173. Understanding consumers: the key questions
    • Who is important? 
    • How do they buy?
    • What are their choice criteria?
    • When do they buy?
    • Where do they buy?
  174. Understanding consumers: the key questions
    Who is important?
    • Fem roller i "buying centre"
    • Initiator: den som börjar tänka i banorna av köp
    • Influencer: den som försöker övertala andra i gruppen.
    • Decider: personen med inflytande/makt/pengar som beslutar.
    • Buyer: den som genomför själva transaktionen, ringer leverantören, besöker butiken etc.
    • User: den som använder produkten
  175. Understanding consumers: the key questions
    How they buy?
    • Här kommer The consumer decision-making process in. 
    • Need recognition: funktionellt behov, men kan också vara emotionellt eller psykologiskt (status t.ex. vid parfymköp). Är behovet stort nog för att motivera till ett vidare engagemang? Kan finnas need inhibitors som hindrar köp. The needs i sig är mycket viktiga att känna till, kan uppdagas vid djupintervjuer, fokusgrupper. Need inhibitors kan överbryggas med hjälp av garantier, försäkringar, reviews/recommendations osv. need stimulation, stimulera behoven genom reklam, förtydliga behovets storlek, fördelarna med att ha en vara (desired situation) över att bevara current situation. Early adopters/innovators behov är inte lika uppenbara och triggas av nyheter, något roligt/spännande osv.
    • Information search: kunden kollar om det finns alternativa produkter, alternativa lösningar. Sökningen kan vara internal eller external beroende på om man letar i sitt minne eller om man söker sig utåt mot personal, commercial sources. man kanske vill ha personal experience genom att testköra en bil också. När de letar information utökar de sitt awareness set. Rekommendationer/reviews har blivit mycket viktiga.
    • Evaluation of alternatives and the purchase: här bryts awareness set ned till evoked set (alternativ man verkligen överväger), det är färre choice criteria som används. Övervägandet präglas också av level of involvement (som i sin tur präglas av "determinants of the extent of problem-solving": self-image, perceived risk, social factors, hedonism). Värderingen inför ett köp med high involvement påverkas enligt Fishbein and Azjen av personal beliefs->attitudes samt normative bliefs->subjective norms som leder fram till om det blir ett köp eller inte. Beliefs är uppfattningar om varumärkets egenskaper som avgör om vi är positiva/negativa till varumärket och hur köpet skulle påverka oss som individer. Normative beliefs är omgivningens bedömningar och vår tolkning av vad omgivningen kommer att tycka om vårt köp. Värderingar med low involvement (Ehrenberg and Goodhart repeat purchase model) så testar man någonting utifrån top of mind-awareness. Känslor spelar stor roll i värderingen, självbild etc, att skapa värme kring sitt varumärke är viktigt m.m.
  176. post-purchase evaluation of the decision
    Efter köpet kan konsumenten känna osäkerhet kring sitt val. Då söker de efter sådant som bekräftar att de gjort ett bra val. Här han varumärket jobba med en sådan marknadsföring, säljare kan höra av sig och bekräfta att det var ett bra köp etc. T.ex. franska A.P.C. eller & Other Stories som skickar med ett kort när man beställer per internet för en ytterligare, personlig återkoppling som bekräftar att man valde någonting högklassigt (eftersom man betalade mer där än om man handlat hos en konkurrent). Priset och huruvida köpet är oåterkalleligt spelar in här.
  177. Understanding consumers: the key questions
    What are the choice criteria?
    • Choice criteria är sådana attribut som vi fäster vikt vid när vi gör en utvärdering inför ett köp.
    • Technical (reliability, durability, performance, taste, convenience etc)
    • Economic (price, value for money, running costs, life-cycle costs tänk Lexus lågkonjunktur)
    • Social (status, social tillhörighet, fashion, konventioner/mode)
    • Personal (självbild, risk reduction "man vill inte bli sedd i otrendiga kläder så man köper bara fashion clothes", ethics, emotions)
  178. Organizational buying: key questions och grundfaktorer
    • Who buys? DMU och dess olika roller
    • How they buy? the organizational decision-making process. 
    • What are the choice criteria? 

    • Influences on organizational purchasing behaviour:
    • The Buy Class: straight rebuy, modifies rebuy, new task
    • Product type: product constituents, product facilities, MROs
    • Importance of purchase: pengar och vikten av att få rätt kvalitet osv påverkar beteendet givetvis.
  179. CRM - corporate relationship management
  180. bullwhip effect
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  181. Jan Enander-föreläsningen
    • affärsnyttan av marknadsundersökningar: når vårt budskap fram? är det effektivt? är det trovärdigt? måste vi ändra vår holländska reklam i Sverige?,
    • hantverket: enkäter, face-2-face, webb, postalt.
    • kan vi göra marknadsundersökningar mer spännande? gamification, 19-30-åringar, neuromarketing osv. 
    • behovsbaserad segmentering (Haley 1968): ta fram segment utifrån behov exempel: "provar gärna nya sorter", "jag är konservativ" "jag väljer gärna ekologiskt" osv.
  182. Jan Enander: om enkätundersökningar
    gå från breda frågor till mer och mer detaljerade:

    • Inte styra respondenten
    • • Logiskt flöde
    • • Fokusera efter hand

    Omnibusenkäter kan vara priseffektivt.
  183. Jan Enander: om marknadsundersökningar
    de ska korreleras till "tid, budget, kvalitet". Bra, Billigt, Snabbt är det optimala. Men alla har inte råd med bra, kanske är det för bråttom osv.
  184. Jan Enander: kvalitativa marknadsundrsökningar och kvantitativa
    Kvalitativa:Kostar mycket mer. Olika typer: djupintervjuer, fokusgrupper, beteendeintervjuer

    Kvantitativa: brev, webb, enkät, F2F. Vissa har börjat med smileys man kan trycka i efter ett besök.
  185. Tolstoys B2B-föreläsning: skillnader på B2B från B2C
    • B2B skiljer sig från B2C på olika sätt:
    • 1. Kundernas egenskaper (KAM, Pareto, reverse marketing)
    • 2. Valkriterier (proffs, transparens, Porter bargain power of suppliers)
    • 3. Risk (kontrakt, skadestånd, konkurs)
    • 4. Härledd efterfrågan (bullwhip effect, IT)
    • 5. Förhandlingar (många olika avdelningar inblandade, DMU, turn-key)
    • 6. Ömsesidighet (reverse marketing, aktiva parter)
    • 7. Särskilda krav från köpare (motköp, som JAS/Sydafrika osv)
  186. Daniel Tolstoy B2B: fyra viktiga frågor
    • - vad utmärker organisationers köp? (det är skillnaderna mellan B2B och B2C, de 7 punkterna som togs upp i det kortet)
    • - vad utmärker organisationer som köpare? (det är en DMU (initiator, influencer, user, buyer, decider, gatekeeper). kan vara Industriella kunder, återförsäljare, offentliga organisationer)
    • - hur ser organisationers köpprocesser ut? 
    • Image Upload 18
    • processen består av olika steg och det finns choice criteria (ekonomiska, tekniska, sociala, personliga) inblandade. 
    • - vilka faktorer inverkar på organisationers enskilda köp?
    • Image Upload 19
    • olika typer av köp har olika tidsåtgång, engagemang och involverade personer kopplade till sig.
  187. Tolstoys B2B-föreläsning: Nätverksidén
    Relationer börjar oftast med kontakter mellan individer. Genom interaktion lär man om varandra och avståndet minskas.De sociala band som skapas kan ge förtroende, engagemang, kunskap och förståelse för de specifika utmaningar som det andra företaget står inför. Detta kan minska avståndet mellan företagen.Specifika investeringar i resurser som är anpassade till kundens behov kan öka effektiviteten. Skapa mervärde för kunden.Rutinisering av aktiviteter leder till effektivitetsvinster & tydliga förväntningar beträffande kontakter mellan företagen, rollfördelning, etc

    • Image Upload 20
    • Tänk IKEA och deras leverantörer.
  188. Argument MOT CSR (4 stycken)
    • * CSR is misguided - Milton Friedman menade att vi inte ska använda företagspengar till fel saker (CSR)
    • * CSR is too costy - man använder pengar till CSR ist för research and development t.ex.
    • * CSR encourages consumer cynicism - man menar att CSR ändå skapar känslan hos konsumenter att allt är åt helvete och att CSR är rent påhitt, att ingen på företaget tar det på allvar osv.
    • * CSR does not improve profitability - Shell svindlade med oljan men efter skandalen steg lönsamheten igen. Länken mellan CSR och lönsamhet är svag enligt forskning. Dock verkar inget tyda på att CSR skulle skada lönsamheten.
  189. Argument FÖR CSR (6 stycken)
    • * CSR leads to enhanced brand/corporate image and reputation - det finns massa fördelar för ett varumärke att arbeta med CSR, välgörenhet, stötta konst osv. 
    • * CSR provides marketing opportunities - både b2b och b2c har genererat nya marknader för environmental and social responsibility. Visa varumärken, som Cafédirect, Green & Black's, Body Shop osv har det som sin profilering. Nya segment av kunder som högt värdesätter gröna produkter har uppstått, market opportunities, target markets osv. dark green, light green. 
    • *CSR inscreares organizations' ability to attract and retain employees - folk gillar att arbeta för socialt ansvarstagande företag. Som Happy Computer
    • *CSR is a form of risk management - att arbeta ansvarsfullt minskar risken för mediakritik och böter. Tänk Volkswagen, vad har de vunnit/förlorat?
    • *CSR improves access to capital - CSR-företag har tillgång till SRI (socially responsible investment) vilket verkar handla om att de hamnar i särskilda fonder på börsen osv.
  190. mystery shopping
    Mystery shopping är en form av marknadsundersökning. Tanken är att det är ovanligt att konsumenten av sig själv berättar i butiken om sina erfarenheter som kund. Branschens företrädare menar att 90% av butikskunderna normalt sett inte framför klagomål även om de är missnöjda, och eftersom det kostar mer att få en ny kund än att behålla en befintlig kund (siffran fem gånger så mycket nämns ofta) är det sunt förnuft och ekonomi att veta om butikens svagheter och styrkor.
  191. vad består en microenvironmental scanning av?
    • Microenvironmental analysis consists of:
    • -  market analysis, which involves the statistical analysis of market size, growth rates and trends
    • -  customer analysis of buyer behaviour—how they rate competitive offerings, and how they segment.
    • -  competitor analysis, which examines the nature of actual and potential competitors, and their objectives and strategies. It also seeks to   identify their strengths and weaknesses, size, market share and profitability. Finally, entry barrier analysis identifies the key financial and   non-financial barriers that protect the industry from competitor attack.
    • -  distribution analysis, which covers an examination of the attractiveness of different distribution channels, distributor buyer behaviour, their  strengths and weaknesses, movements in power bases, and alternative methods of physical distribution.
    • -  supplier analysis examines who and where they are located, their strengths and weaknesses, power changes and trends in the supply chain.

    Så, en Porter-analys, en segmentering/kundundersökning och en SWOT.
  192. Beskriv the marketing mix (4P):
    The original concept of the marketing mix consists of four major elements: product, price, promotion and place. The product decision involves deciding what goods or services should be offered to a group of customers. Price is a key element of the marketing mix because it represents on a unit basis what the company receives for the product or service that is being marketed. Decisions have to be made with respect to the promotional mix: advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing and online promotion. Place concerns decisions about distribution channels. Key management decisions focus on locations of outlets, methods of transportation and inventory levels held.
  193. Vad utgör ett företags microenvironment?
    The microenvironment consists of the actors in the firm’s immediate environment that affect its capabilities to operate effectively in its chosen markets. Those actors are customers, competitors, distributors and suppliers. (Tänk Porter)
  194. Vilka är de tre olika köpsituationerna? "Buying situation"
    Three types of buying situation can be identified: extended problem-solving, limited problem-solving, and habitual problem-solving.
  195. Vad är en "value analysis"? Alltså value chain analysis
    Value analysis, which can be conducted by either supplier or buyer, is a method of cost reduction in which components are examined to see if they can be made more cheaply. The items are studied to identify unnecessary costs that do not add to the reliability or functionality of the product.
  196. Vad är en "market share analysis"?
    Market share analysis evaluates a company’s performance in comparison to that of its competitors. Sales analysis may show a healthy increase in revenues but this may be due to market growth rather than an improved performance over competitors. An accompanying decline in market share would sound warning bells regarding relative performance. This would stimulate further investigation to root out the causes. It should be recognized that a market share decline is not always a symptom of poor performance. This is why outcomes should always be compared to marketing objectives and performance standards.
  197. Hur genomför man en "stickprovsundersökning" (sampling process)
    The sampling process begins by defining the population-that is, the group that forms the subject of study in a particular survey. The next step is to search for a sampling frame- that is, a list or other record of the chosen population from which a sample can be selected. The result determines whether a random or non-random sample can be chosen.
  198. Förklara de 4 C:na när det kommer till positionering
    The 4-Cs are clarity, credibility, consistency, and competitiveness. Clarity implies that the positioning idea must be clear in terms of both target market and differential advantage. Simple messages such as ‘BMW: the ultimate driving machine’ and Wal-Mart’s ‘Low prices, always’ are clear and memorable. To break through the overload of information and messages that people receive every day, noise a consistent message is required. The differential advantage that is chosen must also be credible in the minds of the target customer. Finally, the differential advantage should have a competitive edge - it should offer something of value to the customer that the competition is failing to supply.
  199. Förklara "customized marketing"
    In some markets the requirements of individual customers are unique and their purchasing power sufficient to make designing a separate marketing mix for each customer viable. Segmentation at this disaggregated level leads to the use of customized marketing. Many service providers, such as advertising and marketing research agencies, architects and solicitors, vary their offerings on a customer-to-customer basis. They will discuss face to face with each customer their requirements and tailor their services accordingly. Customized marketing is also found within organizational markets because of the high value of orders and the special needs of customers.
  200. Vad används en "perceptual map" till, och vilka är stegen i att utveckla en sådan?
    A useful tool for determining the position of a brand in the marketplace is the perceptual map. This is a visual representation of consumerperceptions of the brand and its competitors using attributes (dimensions) that are important to consumers.

    • The key steps in developing aperceptual map are as follows:
    • 1. Identify a set of competing brands.
    • 2. Identify important attributes that consumers use when choosing between brands using qualitative research (e.g. group discussions).
    • 3. Conduct quantitative marketing research where consumers score each brand on all key attributes.
    • 4. Plot brands on a two-dimensional map(s).
  201. Hur gör man en "microsegmentation"?
    Marketers may find it useful to divide each macro segment (industry, geographic location, size of company) into smaller micro segments on the basis of the buyer’s choice criteria, decision-making unit structure, decision-making process, buy class, purchasing organization, and organizational innovativeness.
  202. Vad är "the value chain" och vilka är dess undergrupper "cost drivers"?
    A value chain is the discrete activities a firm carries out in order to perform its business. It is a useful method for locating superior skills and resources. All firms consist of a set of activities that are conducted to design, manufacture, market, distribute and service its products. The value chain categorizes these into primary and support activities. This enables the sources of costs and differentiation to be understood and located.

    Primary activities include inbound physical distribution (e.g. materials handling, warehousing, inventory control), operations (e.g. manufacturing, packaging, reselling), outbound physical distribution (e.g. delivery, order processing), marketing (e.g. advertising, selling) and service (e.g. installation, repair, customer training).

    Support activities are found within all of these primary activities, and consist of purchased inputs, technology, human resource management and the firm’s infrastructure.
  203. Vad kan underminera ett differential advantage? (3 saker)
    • Three mechanisms are at work that can erode a differential advantage:
    • 1. technological and environment changes that create opportunities for competitors by eroding the protective barriers (e.g. long-standing television companies are being challenged by satellite television).
    • 2. competitors learn how to imitate the sources of the differential advantage (e.g. competitors engage in a training programme to improve service capabilities).
    • 3. complacency leads to lack of protection of the differential advantage.
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